“It is an acknowledged fact that we perceive errors in the work of others more readily than in our own.”― Leonardo da Vinci
We humans are a funny bunch. We work as groups towards the betterment of humanity while treating people in our personal lives with disdain. We pray to gods that don’t show themselves so we can say we are righteous. We bicker, bite, and beat each other, all in a vision of self-justification.
But why do we do these things? Why do we treat others not as we would like to be treated, and yet somehow justify these acts internally?
Usually, the answer is bias.
What does bias mean?
A simple bias definition is that it’s a disposition or prejudice for or against a person or thing. Sometimes, biases can be positive and even help us make good choices in a simpler manner. Othertimes, they can be far worse, where we take actions based on beliefs and stereotypes rather than the reality of a situation or person.
I’m not a psychologist, but I’ve been studying the art and subject for years on end. In my quest to learn via teaching, I collected as many cognitive biases, effects, and phenomena into the giant list below.
If you’re curious about cognitive biases, have a look through and search around to find out more. If you’re anything like me, you’ll find the topic incredibly fascinating.
Because what is more interesting than learning about why we do the things we do?
Well, probably any documentary narrated by the prodigious Morgan Freeman, but I digress.
219 Cognitive Biases, Effects, and Phenomenons
#1. Action Bias
What is action bias?
Action bias is our tendency to perform an action even when no action is required, or even when taking no action would be the better option. More importantly, the action is considered an automatic response, and not one based on rational thinking.
#2. Actor-observer bias
What is actor-observer bias?
This bias is the difference in attributions when judging behavior in a situation, depending on if the person is the actor or the observer.
When we judge others in a situation (as an observer), we tend to think of their actions as being related to their personality. But when we judge ourselves (as an actor), even in the same situations, we tend to believe the actions are related to the situation itself, rather than our own personality.
Essentially, when we watch others, we attribute their actions to their personality, but for ourselves, we blame the situation.
#3. Additive bias
What is additive bias?
The additive bias is our tendency to add solutions to a problem, rather than subtract from them.
If you think of writing, many authors find it hard to edit their work down, instead preferring to add even more writing when the opposite is needed. In technology, how often do we see even more features added to products, when all we wanted was a simple function in the first place. In business, many companies have a tendency to add more and more products, rather than improving and focusing on their existing ones.
The solution even applies to legos, where studies found a strong preference to add blocks to fix a wobbly bridge when the better solution was to remove a few instead.
#4. Agent detection bias
What is agent detection bias?
Agent detection is when animals and humans ascribe a presence of a sentient being in a situation, even when there isn’t one present.
Think of when a dog hears a leaf blowing in the wind, and barks at it as if it were another animal. If you’re walking through the forest and hear a twig snap, your first thought is probably there’s an animal, if not a predator, nearby. Many scholars also believe the formation of religions and belief in deities is an advanced form of this bias.
#5. Ambiguity effect
What is the ambiguity effect?
The ambiguity effect is a cognitive bias where we tend to choose a known outcome over an unknown one, even if the unknown one is likelier to be a better result.
Many investors choose to put their money into safer bonds and well-known companies, even though investing in other areas of the stock market often produces far better returns. Businesses and managers are sometimes hesitant to try new products, technologies, and ideas, instead preferring the status quo since the results are more likely to align with expectations. Even at a restaurant, many of us choose to eat the same dishes over and over, as we know they taste good and we like them, rather than trying something new.
#6. Anchoring bias
What is Anchoring bias?
Anchoring bias is when we rely heavily on the first piece of information given to us about a situation or decision.
When we go to McDonald’s and see the small fries are $1.00, but the triple-sized large fries are only $1.50, we think it’s a deal (even though the fries are very cheap to produce in the first place). If you’re at an art show and about to negotiate to buy a piece, and there’s another painting by the same artist beside it with a high list price (compared to what it would normally sell for), we’re more likely to think the first painting is more valuable, too. Advertisements, prices in stores, and most types of negotiations rely on the anchoring bias to a heavy degree.
#7. Anthropocentric thinking
What is anthropocentric thinking?
Anthropocentric thinking is the idea that humans are the most important being in existence.
Some refer to the same idea as humanocentrism, human supremacy, or human exceptionalism. The idea is a prominent figure in arguments surrounding environmental ethics and solutions, with some believing anthropocentrism is at the root of our environmental problems today.
What is anthropomorphism?
What is apophenia?
Apophenia is when we see patterns or connections between unrelated or random things. Think of constellations, elaborate unlikely conspiracy theories, or shapes in the clouds above. All of these are random, yet we incorrectly (most of the time) ascribe them as being connected.
#10. Association fallacy
What is the association fallacy?
“The guilt by association fallacy seeks to discredit an argument or a speaker based on an association with a demonized group or person. In the case of an argument, the fallacy is employed by stating the vilified group also held the same belief or argument. When the guilt by association fallacy is used against a speaker, it seeks to discredit any position they may advance due to an association deemed undesirable.” — Study.com
#11. Assumed similarity bias
What is the assumed similarity bias?
“Assumed similarity is a distortion of perceptions that may occur during assessment interviews. This happens when the assessor, attracted to the candidate, assumes incorrectly that the candidate shares characteristics similar to him- or herself” — Sage Journals
#12. Attentional bias
What is attentional bias?
“Attentional bias is the tendency to pay attention to some things while simultaneously ignoring others. Attentional bias affects not only the things that we perceive in the environment but the decisions that we make based upon our perceptions.” — VeryWellMind
#13. Attribute substitution
What is attribution substitution?
“Attribute substitution is also known as substitution bias. This is another cognitive bias that is supposed to make a decision-making process more manageable.
Attribute substitution is a psychological process in which one or more attributes influence a person’s judgment of a person or event.” — Peep Strategy
#14. Attribution bias
What is attribution bias?
“Attribution bias is the tendency to explain a person’s behaviour by referring to their character rather than any situational factor. In essence, it leads us to overestimate the weight of someone’s personality traits, and underestimate the influence of their individual circumstances.” — Be Applied
#15. Authority bias
What is authority bias?
“The authority bias is our tendency to be more influenced by the opinion of an authority figure, unrelated to its actual content. Like all cognitive biases, the authority bias is a shortcut our brains use to save time and energy making decisions.” — Ness Labs
#16. Automation bias
What is automation bias?
“In a nutshell, automation bias is our tendency to accept and even prefer suggestions from technology, despite the fact that automation is well known to lead us astray.” — Be More Prof
#17. Availability bias
What is availability bias?
“The availability bias is the human tendency to think that examples of things that come readily to mind are more representative than is actually the case.” — Tech Target
#18. Availability cascade
What is the availability cascade?
“An availability cascade is a self-reinforcing process where a certain stance gains increasing prominence in public discourse, which increases its availability to people and which therefore makes them more likely to believe it and spread it further.” — Effectiviology
#19. Backfire effect
What is the backfire effect?
The backfire effect “is when a correction leads to an individual increasing their belief in the very misconception the correction is aiming to rectify. There is currently a debate in the literature as to whether backfire effects exist at all, as recent studies have failed to find the phenomenon, even under theoretically favorable conditions.” — NIH
#20. Bandwagon effect
What is the bandwagon effect?
“The bandwagon effect is a psychological phenomenon in which people do something primarily because other people are doing it, regardless of their own beliefs, which they may ignore or override. This tendency of people to align their beliefs and behaviors with those of a group is also called a herd mentality.” — Investopedia
#21. Base rate fallacy
What is the base rate fallacy?
“The base-rate fallacy is a decision-making error in which information about the rate of occurrence of some trait in a population (the base-rate information) is ignored or not given appropriate weight.” — Simply Psychology
#22. Belief bias
What is belief bias?
“Belief bias is the tendency in syllogistic reasoning to rely on prior beliefs rather than to fully obey logical principles. Few studies have investigated the age effect on belief bias. Although several studies have recently begun to explore this topic, little is known about the psychological mechanisms underlying such an effect.” — Frontiers
#23. Ben Franklin effect
What is the Ben Franklin effect?
The Ben Franklin effect is when “a person who has done someone a favor is more likely to do that person another favor than they would be had they received a favor.” — Farnam Street
#24. Berkson’s paradox
What is Berkson’s paradox?
“Berkson’s paradox is a result in statistics, very closely related to Simpson’s paradox, that demonstrates that two values can statistically be negatively correlated even when they appear positively correlated in the population.” — Brilliant
#25. Bias blind spot
What is the bias blind spot?
“It has been well established that people have a “bias blind spot,” meaning that they are less likely to detect bias in themselves than others. However, how blind we are to our own actual degree of bias, and how many of us think we are less biased than others have been less clear.” — Carnegie Mellon University
#26. Bizarreness effect
What is the bizarreness effect?
“Bizarreness effect is the tendency of bizarre material to be better remembered than common material. The scientific evidence for its existence is contested. Some research suggests it does exist, some suggests it doesn’t exist and some suggests it leads to worse remembering.” — Wikipedia
#27. Boundary extension
What is boundary extension?
“Boundary extension is an error of commission in which people confidently remember seeing a surrounding region of a scene that was not visible in the studied view.” — Intraub & Richardson
#28. Cheerleader effect
What is the cheerleader effect?
“The cheerleader effect describes the phenomenon whereby faces are perceived as being more attractive when flanked by other faces than when they are perceived in isolation.” — Frontiers
#29. Childhood amnesia
What is childhood amnesia?
“Infantile or childhood amnesia is the inability of human adults to remember episodic experiences that occurred during the first few years of life (generally 0–3 years) and the tendency to have sparse recollection of episodic experiences that occurred before age 10.” — NCBI
#30. Choice-supportive bias
What is choice-supportive bias?
“Choice-supportive bias is the tendency to remember our choices as better than they actually were, because we tend to over attribute positive features to options we chose and negative features to options not chosen. Individuals tend to think that ‘they chose this option so it must have been the better option.’” — Convertize
#31. Cognitive dissonance
What is cognitive dissonance?
“The term cognitive dissonance is used to describe the mental discomfort that results from holding two conflicting beliefs, values, or attitudes. People tend to seek consistency in their attitudes and perceptions, so this conflict causes feelings of unease or discomfort.” — Very Well Mind
#32. Commission bias
Bias by commission “is the pattern of passing along assumptions that tend to support a left-wing or liberal view-point. This occurs when a reporter or other media outlet presents/passes along only one perspective, by a liberal or conservative standpoint, and does not acknowledge the opposing standpoint.” — Comm Media Bias
#32. Compassion fade
What is compassion fade?
“Compassion fade is a cognitive bias, which refers to the decrease in the compassion one shows for the people in trouble as the number of the victims increase.” — Econowmics
#33. Confirmation bias
What is confirmation bias?
Confirmation bias is “the tendency to process information by looking for, or interpreting, information that is consistent with one’s existing beliefs.” — Britannica
What is conformity?
“Conformity is the tendency for an individual to align their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors with those of the people around them.” — Psychology Today
#35. Congruence bias
What is congruence bias?
“Congruence Bias refers to the fact that, as a species, we prefer to only test against our initial hypothesis, neglecting to explore alternative outcomes.” — Adcock Solutions
#36. Conjunction fallacy or the Linda problem
What is the conjunction fallacy?
“The conjunction fallacy (also known as the Linda problem) is an inference from an array of particulars, in violation of the laws of probability, that a conjoint set of two or more conclusions is likelier than a single member of that same set.” — Wikipedia
#37. Conservatism or Regressive bias
What is conservatism or regressive bias?
“In cognitive psychology and decision science, conservatism or conservatism bias is a bias which refers to the tendency to revise one’s belief insufficiently when presented with new evidence. This bias describes human belief revision in which people over-weigh the prior distribution (base rate) and under-weigh new sample evidence when compared to Bayesian belief-revision.” — Wikipedia
#38. Consistency bias
What is the consistency bias?
“The term ‘consistency bias refers’ to people’s tendency to judge their own interpersonal behavior in a given situation in accordance with their general self-images, even if their actual behavior in the situation is partialled out.” — Psycnet
#39. Context effect
What is the context effect?
The context effect “holds that an event is more favorably perceived and remembered when the surrounding environment is comfortable and appealing.” — Alley Dog
#40. Continued influence effect
What is the continued influence effect?
“The term “continued influence effect” (CIE) refers to the phenomenon that discredited and obsolete information continues to affect behavior and beliefs.” — Springer Open
#41. Contrast effect
What is the contrast effect?
“Contrast effect is an unconscious bias that happens when two things are judged in comparison to one another, instead of being assessed individually.” — Be Applied
#42. Courtesy bias
What is the courtesy bias?
“The Courtesy Bias is the reluctance of an individual to give negative feedback for fear of offending. The person tends to adopt a more socially correct opinion than their own, looking to avoid displeasing those asking the question.” — Small Business Forum
#43. Cross-race effect
What is the cross-race effect?
“The cross-race effect (sometimes called cross-race bias, other-race bias or own-race bias) is the tendency for people of one race to have difficulty recognizing and processing faces and facial expressions of members of a race or ethnic group other than their own.” — Psychology Fandom
What is cryptomnesia?
Cryptomnesia is “an implicit memory phenomenon in which people mistakenly believe that a current thought or idea is a product of their own creation when, in fact, they have encountered it previously and then forgotten it.” — APA
#45. Curse of knowledge
What is the curse of knowledge?
“The curse of knowledge is a cognitive bias that occurs when an individual, communicating with other individuals, unknowingly assumes that the others have the background to understand.” — User Testing
What is declinism?
“Declinism is the tendency to see the past in an overly positive light and to view the present or future in an overly negative light, leading us to believe that things are worse than they used to be.” — Decision Lab
#47. Decoy effect
What is the decoy effect?
“The decoy effect is defined as the phenomenon whereby consumers change their preference between two options when presented with a third option — the ‘decoy’ — that is ‘asymmetrically dominated’. It is also referred to as the ‘attraction effect’ or ‘asymmetric dominance effect’.” — The Conversation
#48. Default effect
What is the default effect?
“The Default Effect is…the way in which any default option on offer is most likely to be chosen over anything else and so offering up a default option gives us a way of influencing people’s decisions.” — Convertize
#49. Defensive attribution hypothesis
What is the defensive attribution hypothesis?
“The defensive attribution hypothesis is a social psychology term that describes an attributional approach taken by some people — a set of beliefs that an individual uses to protect or “shield” themselves against fears of being the victim or cause of a major mishap.” — Alley Dog
#50. Denomination effect
What is the denomination effect?
“The denomination effect is a form of cognitive bias relating to currency, suggesting people may be less likely to spend larger currency denominations than their equivalent value in smaller denominations.” — Wikipedia
#51. Disposition effect
What is the disposition effect?
“The disposition effect refers to our tendency to prematurely sell assets that have made financial gains, while holding on to assets that are losing money.” — Decision Lab
#52. Distinction bias
What is the distinction bias?
“Distinction bias occurs when magnifying small quantitative differences between two options in a direct comparison.” — Brescia
#53. Dread aversion
What is dread aversion?
Dread aversion is “the tendency to feel displeasure (dread) from anticipating future losses outweighs the pleasure (savoring) from anticipating equal gains.” — SSRN
#54. Dunning–Kruger effect
What is the Dunning–Kruger effect?
The Dunning-Kruger effect is “a cognitive bias whereby people with limited knowledge or competence in a given intellectual or social domain greatly overestimate their own knowledge or competence in that domain relative to objective criteria or to the performance of their peers or of people in general.” — Britannica
#55. Duration neglect
What is duration neglect?
“Duration neglect is the psychological principle that the length of an experience has little effect on the memory of that event.” — Shortform
#56. Effort justification
What is effort justification?
“Effort justification is the idea that when people make sacrifices to pursue a goal, the effort is often rationalized by elevating the attractiveness of the goal.” — iResearchNet
#57. Egocentric bias
What is egocentric bias?
“The egocentric bias is a cognitive bias that causes people to rely too heavily on their own point of view when they examine events in their life or when they try to see things from other people’s perspective.” — Effectivology
#58. End-of-history illusion
What is the end-of-history illusion?
“The end-of-history illusion is a psychological illusion in which individuals of all ages believe that they have experienced significant personal growth and changes in tastes up to the present moment, but will not substantially grow or mature in the future.” — Wikipedia
#59. Endowment effect
What is the endowment effect?
“The endowment effect describes a circumstance in which an individual places a higher value on an object that they already own than the value they would place on that same object if they did not own it.” — Investopedia
#60. Escalation of commitment, irrational escalation, or sunk cost fallacy
What is the escalation of commitment, irrational escalation, or sunk cost fallacy?
“Escalation of commitment is a human behavior pattern in which an individual or group facing increasingly negative outcomes from a decision, action, or investment nevertheless continues the behavior instead of altering course.” — Henrico Dolfing
#61. Euphoric recall
What is euphoric recall?
“Euphoric recall is a state in which individuals remember the past with “rose-colored glasses.” This addictive thinking exaggerates a positive experience but fails to bring up the negative side — all of the good, none of the bad.” — Integrative Life Center
#62. Exaggerated expectation
What is exaggerated expectation?
“Exaggerated expectation is a more extreme version of confirmation bias (interpreting information in such a way that it confirms a preconception). The reality, when compared to real-world evidence, turns out to be less severe or extreme than the expectations.” — Alley Dog
#63. Experimenter’s or expectation bias
What is the experimenter’s or expectation bias?
“Experimenter Bias is a type of cognitive bias that occurs when experimenters allow their expectations to affect their interpretation of observations. People believe that bias is rare, but its presence can seriously threaten the validity of an experiment.” — Formplus Blog
#64. Extension neglect
What is extension neglect?
“Extension neglect is a type of cognitive bias which occurs when the sample size is ignored when its determination is relevant.” — Wikipedia
#65. Extrinsic incentives bias
What is the extrinsic incentives bias?
“The extrinsic incentive bias relates to the tendency to attribute other people’s motives to extrinsic incentives, such as job security or high wages, rather than intrinsic ones, such as learning new things or building a new skill.” — Decision Lab
#66. Fading affect bias
What is the fading affect bias?
The “fading affect bias (FAB) indicates that the emotional response prompted by positive memories often tends to be stronger than the emotional response prompted by negative memories.” — Science Direct
#67. Fallacy of composition
What is the fallacy of composition?
“The fallacy of composition involves taking attributes of part of an object or class and applying them to the entire object or class.” — ThoughtCo
#68. Fallacy of division
What is the fallacy of division?
“Fallacy of division is a logical fallacy — and more specifically, an informal fallacy — that arises when the attributes of a whole are mistakenly presumed to apply to the parts, or members, of the whole. It is the converse of the fallacy of composition.” — Fallacy in Logic
#69. False consensus effect
What is the false consensus effect?
“The false consensus effect describes the tendency for people to believe that their own opinions, beliefs, and attributes are more common and normative in others than they actually are, and that opinions, beliefs and attributes that others have but they do not share are more indicative of someone’s personality in general.” — Simply Psychology
#70. False memory
What is a false memory?
“False memory refers to cases in which people remember events differently from the way they happened or, in the most dramatic case, remember events that never happened at all.” — Scholarpedia
#71. False uniqueness bias
What is the false uniqueness bias?
“False uniqueness bias refers to the tendency for people to underestimate the proportion of peers who share their desirable attributes and behaviors and to overestimate the proportion who share their undesirable attributes.” — iResearch Net
#72. Forer effect or Barnum effect
What is the Forer effect or Barnum effect?
“Barnum Effect, also called Forer Effect, in psychology, the phenomenon that occurs when individuals believe that personality descriptions apply specifically to them (more so than to other people), despite the fact that the description is actually filled with information that applies to everyone.” — Britannica
#73. Form function attribution bias
What is form function attribution bias?
“The term form function attribution bias (FFAB) refers to the cognitive bias which occurs when people are prone to perceptual errors, leading to a biased interpretation of a robot’s functionality.” — IEEE
#74. Framing effect, frequency illusion, or Baader–Meinhof phenomenon
What is the framing effect, frequency illusion, or Baader–Meinhof phenomenon?
The frequency illusion, framing effect, or “Baader-Meinhof phenomenon, this cognitive bias states that an individual feels he/she encounters new information very frequently after coming across it for the first time. It is explained by the mind noticing the new information more and the confirmation bias reinforcing it.” — Club Street Post
#75. Fundamental attribution error
What is fundamental attribution error?
“The fundamental attribution error (also known as correspondence bias or over-attribution effect) is the tendency for people to over-emphasize dispositional, or personality-based explanations for behaviors observed in others while under-emphasizing situational explanations.” — Simply Psychology
#76. Gambler’s fallacy
What is the gambler’s fallacy?
“The gambler’s fallacy, also known as the Monte Carlo fallacy, occurs when an individual erroneously believes that a certain random event is less likely or more likely to happen based on the outcome of a previous event or series of events.” — Investopedia
#77. Gender bias in psychology
What is gender bias?
“A gender bias is the differential treatment and/or representation of males and females, based on stereotypes and not on real differences.” — Tutor2U
#78. Generation effect or Self-generation effect
What is the generation effect or self-generation effect?
“The self-generation effect describes how information is better remembered when it is self-generated as opposed to passively consuming or interacting it.” — Interaction Design Foundation
#79. Google effect
What is the Google effect?
“Google effect is the tendency for people to forget information that can be easily looked up online. This effect is caused by the ease of access to information that search engines like Google provide.” — Science ABC
#80. Group attribution error
What is a group attribution error?
“The group attribution error refers to people’s tendency to use a group’s decision to attribute correspondent attitudes to its members, even when information is available that indicates that all members do not support the decision.” — Science Direct
What is groupshift?
“Group shift refers to a condition where the position of an individual in the group changes to adopt a more extreme position due to the influence of the group.” — Difference Between
What is groupthink?
“Groupthink refers to a psychological phenomenon in which members of a group make decisions based on the pressure that they get from the group.” — Difference Between
#83. Halo effect
What is the halo effect?
The halo effect is “our overall impression of a person influences how we feel and think about their character.” — Very Well Mind
#84. Hard–easy effect
What is the hard-easy effect?
The hard-easy effect is “a cognitive bias comprising a tendency to overestimate the likelihood of one’s success at a task perceived as difficult, and to underestimate that likelihood at a task perceived as easy.” — Your Dictionary
#85. Hindsight bias
What is hindsight bias?
“Hindsight bias is a psychological phenomenon that allows people to convince themselves after an event that they accurately predicted it before it happened. This can lead people to conclude that they can accurately predict other events. Hindsight bias is studied in behavioral economics because it is a common failing of individual investors.” — Investopedia
#86. Hostile attribution bias
What is hostile attribution bias?
“Hostile attribution bias is a kind of interpretation bias in which individuals are more likely to interpret ambiguous situations as hostile than benign” — Frontiers
#87. Hot-cold empathy gap
What is the hot-cold empathy gap?
“A hot-cold empathy gap occurs when people underestimate the influence of visceral states (e.g. being angry, in pain, or hungry) on their behavior or preferences.” — Behavioral Economics
#88. Hot-hand fallacy
What is the hot-hand fallacy?
“The hot-hand fallacy is the tendency to believe that someone who has been successful in a task or activity is more likely to be successful again in further attempts.” — Decision Lab
#89. Humor effect
What is the humor effect?
“The humor effect is a cognitive bias that causes people to remember information better when they perceive it as humorous.” — Effectiviology
#90. Hyperbolic discounting
What is hyperbolic discounting?
“Hyperbolic discounting, also called “present bias,” is a cognitive bias, where people choose smaller, immediate rewards rather than larger, later rewards. The discounted present value of the future reward follows a mathematical curve called a hyperbola.” — Nir and Far
#91. IKEA effect
What is the IKEA effect?
“The IKEA effect is a cognitive bias in which consumers place a disproportionately high value on products they partially created. The name refers to Swedish manufacturer and furniture retailer IKEA, which sells many items of furniture that require assembly.” — Wikipedia
#92. Illicit transference
What is illicit transference?
“The fallacy of illicit transference is an informal fallacy that is committed when an argument assumes there is no difference between a term in the distributive (referring to every member of a class) and collective (referring to the class itself as a whole) sense.” — Armchair Deductions
#93. Illusion of asymmetric insight
What is the illusion of asymmetric insight?
“The illusion of asymmetrical insight clouds your ability to see the people you disagree with as nuanced and complex.” — You Are Not So Smart
#94. Illusion of control
What is the illusion of control?
“The illusion of control is a tendency to overestimate how much control you have over the outcome of uncontrollable events.” — Very Well Mind
#95. Illusion of explanatory depth
What is the illusion of explanatory depth?
“The illusion of explanatory depth (IOED) describes our belief that we understand more about the world than we actually do. It is often not until we are asked to actually explain a concept that we come face to face with our limited understanding of it.” — Decision Lab
#96. Illusion of transparency
What is the illusion of transparency?
“The gap between our subjective experience and what other people pick up on is known as the illusion of transparency.” — Farnam Street
#97. Illusion of validity
What is the illusion of validity?
The illusion of validity is “a person’s tendency to overestimate their accuracy in making predictions given a set of data, the illusion of validity is one common source of bias in decision making.” — CogBlog
#98. Illusory correlation
What is illusory correlation?
“Illusory Correlation is when we see an association between two variables (events, actions, ideas, etc.) when they aren’t actually associated.” — Decision Lab
#99. Illusory superiority
What is illusory superiority?
“Illusory superiority is a cognitive bias that causes people to overestimate their positive qualities and abilities and to underestimate their negative qualities, relative to others.” — Psychology Fandom
#100. Illusory truth effect
What is the illusory truth effect?
The illusory truth effect is when repeated information becomes perceived as being more truthful than new information.
#101. Impact bias
What is the impact bias?
Impact bias is “is the tendency to overestimate the intensity or the duration of future emotions and states of feeling.” — Alley Dog
#102. Implicit bias or association
What is implicit bias or association?
“Also known as implicit social cognition, implicit bias refers to the attitudes or stereotypes that affect our understanding, actions, and decisions in an unconscious manner. These biases, which encompass both favorable and unfavorable assessments, are activated involuntarily and without an individual’s awareness or intentional control.” — National Park Service
#103. Information bias
What is information bias?
“Information bias is any systematic difference from the truth that arises in the collection, recall, recording and handling of information in a study, including how missing data is dealt with.” — Catalog of Bias
#104. Ingroup bias
What is ingroup bias?
Ingroup bias is the tendency for humans to favor their own group over those of other groups. Think of football teams, patriotism, or even self-identifying attributes.
#105. Insensitivity to sample size
What is insensitivity to sample size?
“Insensitivity to sample size is a cognitive bias that causes people to disregard sample size when judging the probability of gaining an accurate sampling without comparing the size of the sample to the population being sampled.” — Alley Dog
#106. Intentionality bias
What is intentionality bias?
“The “intentionality bias” refers to our automatic tendency to judge other people’s actions to be intentional.” — Pubmed
#107. Interoceptive bias or Hungry judge effect
What is the interoceptive bias or hungry judge effect?
“The tendency for sensory input about the body itself to affect one’s judgement about external, unrelated circumstances. (As for example, in parole judges who are more lenient when fed and rested.)” — Wikipedia
#108. Just-world hypothesis
What is the just-world hypothesis?
“The just-world hypothesis or just-world fallacy is the cognitive bias that assumes that ‘people get what they deserve’ — that actions will have morally fair and fitting consequences for the actor.” — Wikipedia
#109. Lag effect
What is the lag effect?
“The lag effect suggests that we retain information better when there are longer breaks between repeated presentations of that information.” — Decision Lab
#110. Less-is-better effect
What is the less-is-better effect?
“The less-is-better effect suggests a preference reversal when objects are considered together instead of separately. When objects are evaluated separately rather than jointly, decision makers focus less on attributes that are important and are influenced more by attributes that are easy to evaluate.” — Behavioraleconomics
#111. Leveling and sharpening
What is leveling and sharpening?
“Leveling and sharpening is a cognitive style that represents the way in which an individual uses previous memories when attempting to assimilate new information with prior knowledge.” — JSocial
#112. Levels-of-processing effect
What is the levels-of-processing effect?
“The levels of processing model (Craik & Lockhart, 1972) focuses on the depth of processing involved in memory, and predicts the deeper information is processed, the longer a memory trace will last.” — Simply Psychology
#113. List-length effect
What is the list-length effect?
“The list length effect in recognition memory refers to the finding that recognition performance for a short list is superior to that for a long list.” — PubMed
#114. Logical fallacy
What is a logical fallacy?
“A logical fallacy is an error in reasoning that renders an argument invalid. It is also called a fallacy, an informal logical fallacy, and an informal fallacy.” — ThoughtCo
#115. Loss aversion
What is loss aversion?
“Loss aversion in behavioral economics refers to a phenomenon where a real or potential loss is perceived by individuals as psychologically or emotionally more severe than an equivalent gain. For instance, the pain of losing $100 is often far greater than the joy gained in finding the same amount.” — Investopedia
#116. Memory inhibition
What is memory inhibition?
“Memory inhibition is the ability not to remember irrelevant information.” — Wikipedia
#117. Mere exposure effect or familiarity principle
What is the mere exposure effect or familiarity principle?
“The mere exposure effect describes our tendency to develop preferences for things simply because we are familiar with them. For this reason, it is also known as the familiarity principle.” — Decision Lab
#118. Misattribution of memory Misinformation effect
What is the misattribution of memory Misinformation effect?
“The misinformation effect occurs when a person’s recall of episodic memories becomes less accurate because of post-event information.” — Wikipedia
#119. Modality effect
What is the modality effect?
“The modality effect refers to a cognitive load learning effect which occurs when a mixed mode (partly visual and partly auditory) presentation of information is more effective than when the same information is presented in a single mode (either visual or auditory alone).” — LinkSpringer
#120. Money illusion
What is the money illusion?
Money illusion “states that individuals usually tend to view their income and wealth in nominal terms, as opposed to real terms.” — CFI
#121. Mood-congruent memory bias (state-dependent memory)
What is mood-congruent memory bias (state-dependent memory)?
“Mood congruent memory bias is the tendency to more easily remember events that have a congruence with one’s current mood.” — Alley Dog
#122. Moral credential effect
What is the moral credential effect?
The moral credential effect is the idea that “people tend to keep a running scoreboard in their heads that compares their image of themselves — usually as ‘good folks’— with their actions.” — McCombs School of Business
#123. Moral luck
What is moral luck?
“Moral luck occurs when an agent can be correctly treated as an object of moral judgment despite the fact that a significant aspect of what she is assessed for depends on factors beyond her control.” — Stanford
#124. Naïve cynicism
What is naïve cynicism?
“Naive cynicism is the tendency of laypeople to expect other people’s judgments will have a motivational basis and therefore will be biased in the direction of their self-interest.” — iResearchNet
#125. Naïve realism
What is naïve realism?
“Naive realism is the tendency to believe our perception of the world reflects it exactly as it is, unbiased and unfiltered.” — Decision Lab
#126. Negativity bias or Negativity effect
What is negativity bias or negativity effect?
Negativity bias is the idea that “negative events have a greater impact on our brains than positive ones.” — VeryWellMind
#127. Neglect of probability
What is neglect of probability?
The neglect of probability bias is “the tendency to completely disregard probability when making a decision under uncertainty and is one simple way in which people regularly violate the normative rules for decision making.” — Psychology Fandom
#128. Next-in-line effect
What is the next-in-line effect?
“The next-in-line effect is the cognitive bias that causes a person to have lower recall for events that happened right before or after a performance. This performance can be any public act, whether it is performing on stage or talking to a group of a few other people.” — CogBlog
#129. Non-adaptive choice switching
What is non-adaptive choice switching?
Non-adaptive choice switching is when, “after experiencing a bad outcome from having made a decision, we have a tendency to avoid said decision when faced with another problem, even though it was the optimal choice at the time.” — Cult
#130. Not invented here syndrome
What is not invented here?
“Not invented here (NIH) syndrome is the tendency for management to reject any idea that did not originate within the organization. This type of bias has its roots in xenophobia, the fear of anything strange or foreign.” — TechTarget
#131. Objectivity illusion
What is the objectivity illusion?
The objectivity illusion is “the tendency of people to see themselves as more impartial, more insightful, and less biased than others.” — APA
#132. Observer-expectancy effect
What is the observer-expectancy effect?
“The observer expectancy effect, also known as the experimenter expectancy effect, refers to how the perceived expectations of an observer can influence the people being observed. This term is usually used in the context of research, to describe how the presence of a researcher can influence the behavior of participants in their study.” — Decision Lab
#133. Omission bias
What is ommission bias?
“The tendency towards action, even in a situation where not performing one leads to an identical, or even better outcome, is known as the commission bias.” — ResearchGate
“Omission bias is the phenomenon in which people prefer omission (inaction) over commission (action) and people tend to judge harm as a result of commission more negatively than harm as a result of omission.” — Wikipedia
#134. Optimism bias
What is optimism bias?
“The optimism bias is essentially a mistaken belief that our chances of experiencing negative events are lower and our chances of experiencing positive events are higher than those of our peers.” — Very Well Mind
#135. Ostrich effect
What is the ostrich effect?
“The ostrich effect, also known as the ostrich problem, is a cognitive bias that describes how people often avoid negative information, including feedback that could help them monitor their goal progress.” — Decision Lab
#136. Outcome bias
What is outcome bias?
“Outcome bias is a cognitive bias that enables us to judge our decision making based on the results of the process rather than the quality of the process itself.” — Interaction Design
#137. Outgroup homogeneity bias
What is outgroup homogeneity bias?
The outgroup homogeneity bias is “the tendency to assume that the members of other groups are very similar to each other, particularly in contrast to the assumed diversity of the membership of one’s own group.” — APA
#138. Overconfidence effect
What is the overconfidence effect?
“The overconfidence effect is observed when people’s subjective confidence in their own ability is greater than their objective (actual) performance ” — Behavioral Economics
#139. Parkinson’s law of triviality
What is Parkinson’s law of triviality?
“Parkinson’s law of triviality refers to the tendency of people in organisations — and by extension the organisations themselves — to give disproportionate attention to trivial issues and details.” — HR Zone
#140. Part-list cueing effect
What is the part-list cueing effect?
Part-list cueing effect is when “in a recall test, impairment of the capacity to recall individual items if some of the other items in the list studied are provided as retrieval cues. That is, studying some of the items in a list may impair retrieval of other, nonstudied items in the same list. Also called part-set cuing effect.” — APA
#141. Peak–end rule
What is the peak-end rule?
“The peak–end rule is a cognitive bias that impacts how people remember past events. Intense positive or negative moments (the ‘peaks’) and the final moments of an experience (the ‘end’) are heavily weighted in our mental calculus.” — NN Group
#142. Pessimism bias
What is the pessimism bias?
“The pessimism bias refers to the tendency to overestimate the likelihood of negative events while underestimating the likelihood of positive events.” — Decision Lab
#143. Picture superiority effect
What is the picture superiority effect?
“The picture superiority effect in recognition memory tasks refers to the observation that items studied as pictures are better remembered than items studied as words even when targets are presented as words during the testing phase.” — Science Direct
#144. Placement bias
What is placement bias?
“Bias by Placement is the pattern of placing news stories in a way that downplays information supportive of the minority viewpoint. It is the news that editors and producers consider most important and what’s most likely to sell papers.” — Comm Media Bias
#145. Plan continuation bias
What is the plan continuation bias?
#146. Planning fallacy
What is the planning fallacy?
“The planning fallacy is a phenomenon in which predictions about how much time will be needed to complete a future task display an optimism bias and underestimate the time needed.” — Wikipedia
#147. Plant blindness
What is plant blindness?
“A phenomenon called ‘plant blindness’ means we tend to underappreciate the flora around us.” — BBC
#148. Positivity effect or Socioemotional selectivity theory
What is the positivity effect or Socioemotional selectivity theory?
Socioemotional selectivity theory “is a theory of motivation throughout the lifespan. It suggests that as people age they become more selective in the goals they pursue, with older people prioritizing goals that will lead to meaning and positive emotions and younger people pursuing goals that will lead to the acquisition of knowledge.” — ThoughtCo
#149. Present bias
What is present bias?
“The present bias refers to the tendency of people to give stronger weight to payoffs that are closer to the present time when considering trade-offs between two future moments.” — Behavioral Economics
#150. Prevention bias
What is prevention bias?
Prevention bias is when decision-makers demonstrate “a strong bias toward investing in preventive measures rather than in detection and response measures, even though the task was designed to yield the same return on investment for both classes of measures.” — Science Direct
#151. Primacy effect
What is the primacy effect?
“The primacy effect is the tendency for individuals without neurological impairment to show enhanced memory for items presented at the beginning of a list relative to items presented in the middle of the list.” — Link Springer
#152. Probability matching
What is probability matching?
“Probability matching (PM) is a widely observed phenomenon in which subjects match the probability of choices with the probability of reward in a stochastic context.” — Natural Rationality
#153. Processing difficulty effect
What is the processing difficulty effect?
The processing difficulty effect is that “people have an easier time remembering information that takes longer to read and understand.” — GoodWorksCo
#154. Pro-innovation bias
What is the pro-innovation bias?
“The pro-innovation bias is a prevailing belief that society should adopt innovations without allowing for social alterations.” — Alley Dog
#155. Projection bias
What is projection bias?
“Projection bias is the tendency to falsely project current preferences onto a future event.” — Wikipedia
#156. Proportionality bias
What is proportionality bias?
Proportionality bias is that we humans “have a natural tendency to think that big events must have big causes.” — Sketchplanations
#157. Prospect theory
What is prospect theory?
“Prospect theory assumes that losses and gains are valued differently, and thus individuals make decisions based on perceived gains instead of perceived losses.” — Investopedia
#158. Pseudocertainty effect
What is the pseudocertainty effect?
“The pseudocertainty effect is the tendency for people to perceive an outcome as certain while it is actually uncertain in multi-stage decision making.” — Wikipedia
#159. Puritanical bias
What is puritanical bias?
Puritanical bias “reflects an ideology that puts the blame for wrongdoing entirely on the individual and neglects the impact of broader societal factors.” — HBR
#160. Pygmalion effect
What is the Pygmalion effect?
“The Pygmalion effect is where an individual’s performance is influenced by others’ expectations. In other words, higher expectations lead to higher performance.” — BoyceWire
#161. Reactance Theory
What is reactance?
Reactance theory is “a model stating that in response to a perceived threat to — or loss of — a behavioral freedom, a person will experience psychological reactance (or, more simply, reactance), a motivational state characterized by distress, anxiety, resistance, and the desire to restore that freedom.” — APA
#162. Reactive devaluation
What is reactive devaluation?
“Reactive devaluation refers to our tendency to disparage proposals made by another party, especially if this party is viewed as negative or antagonistic.” — Decision Lab
#163. Recency effect
What is the recency effect?
“The recency effect is a cognitive bias in which those items, ideas, or arguments that came last are remembered more clearly than those that came first. “— ScienceDirect
#164. Recency illusion
What is the recency illusion?
“The recency illusion is the belief or impression that a word or language usage is of recent origin when it is in fact long-established.” — NLP Notes
#165. Reminiscence bump
What is a reminiscence bump?
“One of the most consistently observed phenomena in autobiographical memory research is the reminiscence bump: a tendency for middle-aged and elderly people to access more personal memories from approximately 10–30 years of age.” — PLOS ONE
#167. Repetition blindness
What is repetition blindness?
Repetition blindness is a “failure to notice a second instance of the same thing in a series of words or images.” — Very Well Mind
#168. Restraint bias
What is the restraint bias?
Restraint bias is “a tendency for people to overestimate their capacity for impulse control.” — NorthWestern
#169. Rhyme as reason effect
What is the rhyme as reason effect?
“The rhyme-as-reason effect is a cognitive bias that makes people more likely to believe statements that contain a rhyme, compared to statements that don’t.” — Effectiviology
#170. Risk compensation or Peltzman effect
What is risk compensation or the Peltzman effect?
“While safety measures themselves can certainly help to lower risk, the Peltzman Effect suggests that when safety measures are implemented, people actually tend to increase their risky behaviors.” — Decision Lab
#171. Rosy retrospection
What is rosy retrospection?
“Rosy retrospection is a cognitive bias that causes people to remember past events as being more positive than they were in reality.” — Effectiviology
#172. Salience bias
What is salience bias?
“The salience bias describes our tendency to focus on items or information that are more noteworthy while ignoring those that do not grab our attention.” — Decision Lab
#173. Saying is believing effect
What is the saying is believing effect?
“The saying-is-believing (SIB) effect occurs when tailoring a message to suit an audience influences a communicator’s subsequent memories and impressions about the communication topic.” — Sage Pub
#174. Scope neglect
What is scope neglect?
“Scope neglect or scope insensitivity is a cognitive bias that occurs when the valuation of a problem is not valued with a multiplicative relationship to its size.” — Wikipedia
#175. Selection bias
What is selection bias?
“Selection bias is a distortion in a measure of association (such as a risk ratio) due to a sample selection that does not accurately reflect the target population.” — Eric Notebook
#176. Self-relevance effect
What is the self-relevance effect?
“The self-relevance effect refers to the human tendency to wonder, “Is this about (or does it effect) me?” when evaluating other peoples’ facial expressions.” — Alley Dog
#177. Self-serving bias
What is self-serving bias?
“A self-serving bias is the common habit of a person taking credit for positive events or outcomes, but blaming outside factors for negative events.” — Healthline
#178. Semmelweis reflex
What is the Semmelweis reflex?
“Semmelweis reflex is a human behavioral tendency to stick to preexisting beliefs and to reject fresh ideas that contradict them (despite adequate evidence).” — PubMed
#179. Serial position effect
What is the serial position effect?
The serial position effect is when “when participants are presented with a list of words, they tend to remember the first few and last few words and are more likely to forget those in the middle of the list.” — Simply Psychology
#180. Sexual overperception bias
What is sexual overperception bias?
“The Sexual Overperception Bias is the tendency to believe that others are more sexually interested in you than they actually are.” — Colby
#181. Shared information bias
What is shared information bias?
“Shared information bias (also known as the collective information sampling bias, or common-information bias) is known as the tendency for group members to spend more time and energy discussing information that all members are already familiar with (i.e., shared information), and less time and energy discussing information that only some members are aware of (i.e., unshared information).” — Wikipedia
#182. Social comparison bias
What is social comparison bias?
“Social comparison bias is the feeling of competitiveness and dislike towards someone who is perceived to be better than you.” — Shortform
#183. Social cryptomnesia
What is social cryptomnesia?
“Social cryptomnesia is a cognitive bias experienced by whole cultures following social change. Cryptomnesia is a failing of memory, usually referring to the mistaken belief that something the individual remembers is actually an original idea.” — Wikipedia
#184. Social desirability bias
What is social desirability bias?
“Social desirability bias occurs when respondents give answers to questions that they believe will make them look good to others, concealing their true opinions or experiences.” — Scribbr
#185. Source confusion
What is source confusion?
“Source confusion, also known as source misattribution or unconscious transference, is a type of memory error. It occurs when someone does not remember where certain memories come from.” — Decision Lab
#186. Spacing effect
What is the spacing effect?
“The spacing effect demonstrates that learning is more effective when repeated in spaced-out sessions.” — Decision Lab
#187. Spotlight effect
What is the spotlight effect?
The spotlight effect is “the phenomenon where people tend to overestimate how much others notice aspects of one’s appearance or behavior.” — Cabrini
#188. Status quo bias
What is the status quo bias?
“Status quo bias is an emotional bias; a preference for the maintenance of one’s current or previous state of affairs, or a preference to not undertake any action to change this current or previous state.” — Wikipedia
#189. Stereotype bias or stereotypical bias
What is stereotype bias or stereotypical bias?
“Stereotypical bias is the phenomenon of memory distortion regarding unfounded beliefs on certain groups based on race, gender, etc.” — Alley Dog
#190. Stereotyping Subadditivity effect
What is stereotyping subadditivity effect?
“The subadditivity effect is the tendency to judge probability of the whole to be less than the probabilities of the parts.” — Wikipedia
#191. Spacing effect
What is the spacing effect?
“The spacing effect describes the robust finding that long-term learning is promoted when learning events are spaced out in time, rather than presented in immediate succession.” — NLM
#192. Subjective validation
What is subjective validation?
“Subjective validation, sometimes called personal validation effect, is a cognitive bias by which people will consider a statement or another piece of information to be correct if it has any personal meaning or significance to them.” — Wikipedia
#193. Suffix effect
What is the suffix effect?
“The suffix effect is the selective impairment in recall of the final items of a spoken list when the list is followed by a nominally irrelevant speech item, or suffix.” — PubMed
What is surrogation?
“Surrogation is a psychological phenomenon found in business practices whereby a measure of a construct of interest evolves to replace that construct.” — Wikipedia
#195. Survivorship bias
What is survivorship bias?
“Survivorship bias, survival bias or immortal time bias is the logical error of concentrating on the people or things that made it past some selection process and overlooking those that did not, typically because of their lack of visibility.” — Wikipedia
#196. System justification
What is system justification?
“System justification theory (SJT) is a theory within social psychology that system-justifying beliefs serve a psychologically palliative function. It proposes that people have several underlying needs, which vary from individual to individual, that can be satisfied by the defense and justification of the status quo, even when the system may be disadvantageous to certain people.” — Wikipedia
#197. Systematic bias
What is systematic bias?
“Systematic bias is sampling error that stems from the way in which the research is conducted and can therefore be controlled by the researcher.” — World Supporter
What is tachypsychia?
“Tachypsychia is a neurological condition that distorts the perception of time, usually induced by physical exertion, drug use, or a traumatic event.” — Psychology Fandom
#199. Telescoping effect
What is the telescoping effect?
“In cognitive psychology, the telescoping effect (or telescoping bias) refers to the temporal displacement of an event whereby people perceive recent events as being more remote than they are and distant events as being more recent than they are.” — Wikipedia
#200. Testing effect
What is the testing effect?
“The testing effect (also known as retrieval practice, active recall, practice testing, or test-enhanced learning) suggests long-term memory is increased when some of the learning period is devoted to retrieving information from memory.” — Wikipedia
#201. The normalcy bias
What is the normalcy bias?
“Normalcy bias, or normality bias, is a cognitive bias which leads people to disbelieve or minimize threat warnings.” — Wikipedia
#202. The perky effect
What is the perky effect?
The perky effect were a series of experiments that showed humans “sensory input, or perceptions, can be mistaken for a mental image when perceptual processes and mental imagery interfere with each other.” — Wikipedia
#203. Third-person effect
What is the third-person effect?
“The third-person effect hypothesis predicts that people tend to perceive that mass media messages have a greater effect on others than on themselves, based on personal biases.” — Wikipedia
#204. Time-saving bias
What is time-saving bias?
“Time-saving bias is the human tendency to misjudge or incorrectly estimate the amount of saved or or lost time when increasing or decreasing speed.” — Alley Dog
#205. Tip of the tongue phenomenon
What is the tip of the tongue phenomenon?
“The “tip of the tongue” (TOT) phenomenon is a state in which one cannot quite recall a familiar word but can recall words of similar form and meaning.” — Science Direct
#206. Trait ascription bias
What is trait ascription bias?
“Trait ascription bias is the tendency for people to view themselves as relatively variable in terms of personality, behavior and mood while viewing others as much more predictable in their personal traits across different situations.” — Wikipedia
#207. Travis syndrome
What is Travis syndrome?
“The Travis syndrome is the habit that people have of paying more attention to the future than they do to the present. This creates a failure to pay adequate attention to what’s happening now.” — Alley Dog
#208. Truth bias
What is truth bias?
“People believe others are telling the truth more often than they actually are; this is called the truth bias. Surprisingly, when a speaker is judged at multiple points across their statement the truth bias declines.” — PubMed
#209. Ultimate attribution error
What is the ultimate attribution error?
“The ultimate attribution error is a type of attribution error which proposed to explain why attributions of outgroup behavior is more negative (ie. antisocial or undesirable) than ingroup behavior (see in-group and out-group).” — Wikipedia
#210. Unconscious bias or implicit bias
What is unconscious bias or implicit bias?
“Implicit bias refers to attitudes or stereotypes that affect our understanding, actions, and decisions in an unconscious way, making them difficult to control.” — Simply Psychology
#211. Unit bias
What is unit bias?
“The tendency for people to want to complete a unit of a given item or task. People believe there is an optimal unit size and want to get through to the end because they get satisfaction from completing it.” — Lirio
#212. Verbatim effect
What is the verbatim effect?
“The verbatim effect is a cognitive bias that causes people to remember the gist of information, which is its general meaning, better than they remember its exact form, which is the way the information was presented and the minor details that it involved.” — Effectiviology
#213. von Restorff effect
What is the von Restorff effect?
“The Von Restorff effect, also known as the “isolation effect”, predicts that when multiple homogeneous stimuli are presented, the stimulus that differs from the rest is more likely to be remembered.” — Wikipedia
#214. Weber–Fechner law
What is Weber-Fechner law?
“Weber’s law, also called Weber-Fechner law, historically important psychological law quantifying the perception of change in a given stimulus. The law states that the change in a stimulus that will be just noticeable is a constant ratio of the original stimulus.” — Britannica
#215. Well travelled road effect
What is the well travelled road effect?
“The well travelled road effect is a cognitive bias in which travellers will estimate the time taken to traverse routes differently depending on their familiarity with the route.” — NLP Notes
#216. Women are wonderful effect
What is women are wonderful effect?
“The women-are-wonderful effect is the phenomenon found in psychological and sociological research which suggests that people associate more positive attributes with women compared to men.” — Wikipedia
#217. Worse-than-average effect
What is the worse-than-average effect?
“The worse-than-average effect or below-average effect is the human tendency to underestimate one’s achievements and capabilities in relation to others.” — Wikipedia
#218. Zero-risk bias
What is zero-risk bias?
“Zero-risk Bias is a tendency to prefer the complete elimination of a risk even when alternative options produce a greater reduction in risk overall.” — Adcock Solutions
#219. Zero-sum bias
What is zero-sum bias?
“Zero-sum bias describes intuitively judging a situation to be zero-sum (i.e., resources gained by one party are matched by corresponding losses to another party) when it is actually non-zero-sum.” — NLM