• Plutchik’s Wheel of Emotions: A Handy Little Writing Tool

    “Change happens in the boiler room of our emotions. So find out how to light their fires.” — Jeff Dewar

    Headlines are the beginning of the reading journey.

    No matter how you cut it, your title determines how many people read your subtitle. Your subtitle determines how many people glance at your header image. Your header image reinforces the ideas of the headlines.

    Then someone clicks, or more likely, moves on to another piece.

    These three things combined paint a five-second picture in your readers’ mind of whether or not your work is worth their next five minutes of free time.

    And damn it if our free time isn’t precious these days.

    Or, more importantly, your readers’ free time.

    Let’s find the best of both worlds and improve our headlines’ effectiveness by adding emotion and feeling.

    If your writing is truly great, it needs a title to match.


    Plutchik’s Wheel of Emotions

    American psychologist Dr. Robert Plutchik spent decades of his life studying emotions in people. He ended up being famous for his below contribution to the world — aptly called Plutchik’s Wheel of Emotions.

    The Wheel of Emotions by Dr. Robert Plutchik.
    Wheel of Emotions. Credit: Public Domain Wikimedia Commons

    He identified eight primary feelings that we all subscribe to at a basic level:

    1. Fear/terror
    2. Anger/rage
    3. Joy/ecstasy
    4. Sadness/grief
    5. Acceptance/trust
    6. Disgust/hate
    7. Anticipation
    8. Surprise

    Beyond that, he identified several layers of lower degrees.

    Annoyance rather than rage. Apprehension versus sheer terror.

    People mostly use it today as a form of self-reflection and in becoming more mindful. I hope he wouldn’t fully mind if I want to use it for another purpose — writing headlines!

    Make People Feel to Reel Them In

    I believe the same concept can apply to constructing our titles for whatever kind of story we write.

    You’ve spent hours, if not days, crafting your recent piece. Wouldn’t you hate it if the first sentence blocked 90% of people from reading your work?

    I would. And I certainly do.

    So why not spend a little extra time perfecting the gateway to our stories.

    Adding emotional feeling is certainly a great way to accomplish this. I’m sure you’ve heard of power words, trigger words, and every other kind of title “hack” you could think of.

    There are even dozens of headline analyzers that claim to help you find the right mix for your titles. Some editors swear by them.

    I personally find them lacking, even if they do help nudge me in the right direction. That’s why I started using my own system to improve my titles and increase the click-through rate of readers.

    I call it the Feel to Reel strategy.

    If you want to reel in a reader and entice them to spend their precious time, make them feel something first.

    Feel to Reel 3-Step Headline Writing Strategy

    This process shouldn’t be too hard to follow. Once you get used to it, it will only take an extra minute or two of your article creation time.

    Step 1: Write your article and edit it

    It doesn’t matter how great your headline is; you need to back it up with a great body of writing after.

    Write your story, edit it to perfection, and proceed to the next step.

    Step 2: Choose your feeling

    Of the eight identified primary feelings, which ones are most suited to the article you wrote?

    Feel to Reel by JJ Pryor.
    Feel to Reel, Image created by J.J. Pryor

    Feel free to pick more than one emotion, but try to keep it to two at most.

    Step 3: Choose your words

    Now that you’ve chosen one or two feelings that best suit your story, look through the below list and try to find one word from each emotion that best fits into your headline.

    Don’t forget to play around with the structure of the word, you amazing writer, you.

    Joy:

    Happiness, delight, pleasure, ecstatic, bliss, rapture, enjoyment, cheerful, elated, exhilaration, satisfied, gleeful, glad, joyful, cheerful, gratified, exultation, amusing, fun, merry, euphoric, excitement, jovial, lively, rejoice, triumph, zestful, exuberance, paradise, rejoice, glory, playful, enthusiasm, exaltation, heaven, light-hearted, joyous, jubilant, overjoyed, pleasant, thrilled, blessed.

    Examples with over 5,000 claps:

    • “The Pleasure of Clapping Back”
    • “Can You Enjoy Work Too Much?
    • “Ten Choices I’m Glad I Made and Ten I Wish I Hadn’t”

    Acceptance:

    Acknowledge, affirm, approve, favor, hold, recognize, trust, agree, respect,
    tolerate, absolute, authentic, authority, bold, brilliant, captivate, completely, conclusive, detailed, genuine, guaranteed, honest, legitimate, memorable, professional, promise, proven, reliable, respected, tested, safe, secure, healthy, smart, unmistakable, clear.

    Examples with over 5,000 claps:

    • “How to Recognize Real Love”
    • “Do Your Job and Trust the Process”
    • “You Can Never Demand Respect

    Surprise:

    Shock, astonish, amazing, startle, astound, dumbfound, stagger, stun, wonder, surprising, astonishing, flabbergast, stupefy, confound, daze, jolt, bewilder, shake, floored, blow away, revelation, rock the boat, upset, ambush, awe, dazzle, disconcert, grab, discover, nab, capture, seize.

    Examples with over 5,000 claps:

    • “7 Reasons Why You Will Never Do Anything Amazing With Your Life”
    • “Ever Wonder Why the Most Popular Apps Are Starting to Look the Same?”
    • “The Astonishing Difference a Smile Can Make”

    Anticipation:

    Expect, predict, foresee, forecast, await, foretell, forebode, hope, forestall, promise, envisage, call, envision, counter, wait, foreshadow, prophesy, accelerate, advance, goal, prevent, announce, astonishing, rapid, hurry, rush, soon, ignite, sprint, streamline, crave, inspire, teaser, launch, learn, expect, urgent, now, warning, mystery, wishful, outlook, wonder, yearn, future, plan, desire, covet, yearn, forbidden.

    Examples with over 5,000 claps:

    • “5 Things to Expect When Dating a Mature Woman”
    • “Can One Word Predict the End of a Relationship?
    • “The Mystery of Color”

    Anger:

    Despise, aggravate, disturb, agony, annoy, dread, enrage, salty, revenge, fight, eliminate, fired, savage, assault, scream, atrocious, frantic, force, shatter, attack, frustrate, snarky, furious, severe, beat down, grumpy, hassle, hate, tantrum, terrible, break, bitter, dispute, panic, provoke, deadly, offend, conflict, toxic, touchy, insult, unnerve, malicious, cruel, curse, upset, violate, provoke, uproar, corrupt, insane, resent, wrathful, dispute, disgust, scam, steal.

    Examples with over 5,000 claps:

    • “Why You Make Terrible Life Choices”
    • “Uber’s Valuation is Insane
    • “The Truth About Toxic Workers in The Workplace”

    Fear:

    Danger, embarrassing, miss, panic, mistake, threat, abuse, cowardly, distressed, inferior, avoid, dreaded, unexpected, suspect, shun, worry, angst, anxiety, concern, despair, dismay, doubt, horror, scared, terror, uneasy, highjacking, abusive, forbidden, freaky, scam, alarming, scary, frightening, ghostly, overwhelm, scathing, self-destructive, grim, shady, gruesome, shocking, beware, hair-raising, brutal, harmful, soul-crushing, spine-chilling, hellish, hideous, crisis, cutthroat, alert, horrifying, lethal, daunting, sinister, poisonous, unspeakable, reckless, risky, vulnerable, sabotage, wicked, fatal, unsettling, painful, ominous.

    Examples with over 5,000 claps:

    • “The Danger in Fake Positivity”
    • “I Don’t Miss You Like I Used to”
    • Overwhelming Brutal Truths You Must Accept”

    Hate:

    Hatred, dislike, loathe, detest, abhor, despise, loathing, animosity, hostile, avert, disgust, antagonize, malice, scorn, resent, revenge, shun, awful, sickening, putrid, creepy, worthless, cringe, taboo, criminal, vile, disgraceful, vulgar, grimy, evil, slimy, foul, horrible, messy, appalling, junk, scandal, nasty, unattractive, nauseating, loathsome, obscene, wretched, obnoxious, humiliating, horrid, offensive, corrupt, shameful, rotten, dreadful, revolting.

    Examples with over 5,000 claps:

    • “The Absolute Best Way to Get Revenge
    • “Are You Aware of the Nasty Habits Killing Your Dreams?
    • “‘Find Your Passion’ is Awful Advice”

    Sadness:

    Shameful, gloomy, agonizing, sluggish, grief, heartbreaking, cowardly, hurtful, tearful, inferior, crushing, dark, lacking, dead, tormenting, touching, deceptive, tragic, loser, loss, troubled, defeated, lowest, ugliest, miserable, misfortunate, unsuccessful, missed, awful, disappointing, disastrous, poor, dreadful, poverty, weep, failure, wrong, depressing, pathetic, upsetting, unsettling, unhappy, sorrowful, dejected, somber, woeful, despondent, melancholy, inconsolable, depressed, pity, joyless, dejected.

    Examples with over 5,000 claps:

    • “Why Listening to Sad Music Makes You Feel Better”
    • Ugly Truths About Working From Home”
    • “Why Highly Intelligent People Are Miserable

    Bonus Category: Curiosity

    Adding a bit of intrigue is also a huge factor for triggering people to click.

    Here are a few to use for that added feeling of wonder:

    Learn, harness, unveil, secret, uncover, discover, join, confidential, hidden, insider, private, secluded, exclusive, distinct, unique, peculiar, strange, bizarre, unusual, weird, extraordinary, odd, unconventional, eccentric, abnormal, unexpected, remarkable, mysterious, exotic, rare, puzzling, freakish.

    Examples with over 5,000 claps:

    • “20 Things Most People Learn Too Late in Life”
    • “The Secret to Apple’s New Fonts”
    • “How to Discover Your Genius”
    • “Welcome to the Club No One Wants to Join
    • “The Hidden Costs of Touchscreens”
    • “How Technology is Hijacking Your Mind — from a Former Insider
    • “When Did the American Dream Become Flying Private to Dubai?
    • “The Origins of America’s Unique and Spectacular Cruelty”
    • “The Strange Law of Love”
    • “11 Unusual Tips for How to Wake Up Early”
    • “22 Incredibly Weird but Profound Life Lessons”
    • “How to Make Someone Feel Extraordinary by Saying Very Little”
    • “Self-help for Nightowls and Odd Balls”
    • Unexpected Signs Your Life is Changing for the Better”

    J.J. Pryor

    Head over here for more of my written shenanigans.

  • The 27 Emotions List: What Recent Science Says We Feel

    “I don’t want to be at the mercy of my emotions. I want to use them, to enjoy them, and to dominate them.”― Oscar Wilde, The Picture of Dorian Gray

    When talking about social media, politics, and $30 Starbucks coffees, we often feel a familiar combination of disgust and anger. But a study in 2017 came to the conclusion we have far more emotions despite what our modern internet age tells us.

    In 2017, two researchers from the University of California, Berkely, Alan S. Cowen, and Dacher Keltner, PhD, came to the conclusion there are 27 distinct classifications of emotions in humans.

    In fact, their study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences journal was the largest collection of emotional data to date!

    They used new forms of statistical analysis to analyze 324,066 individual judgments from over 800 people using Amazon Mechanical Turk.

    Cowen and Keltner initially collected 2,185 five-second videos with the goal of eliciting as many emotions as possible. The videos included births, babies, weddings, death, cute animals, art, explosions, sexual acts, and everything in between.

    They showed these videos to the study participants and had them report their emotional responses in the form of free form, ratings, or on a scale of one to nine for other dimensions such as positive versus negative experience, etc.

    Their results?

    They found 27 statistically provable emotions felt by the individuals in their study.

    The 27 Emotions List

    So, what are the 27 emotions Cowen and Keltner identified?

    Admiration, adoration, aesthetic appreciation, amusement, anger, anxiety, awe, awkwardness, boredom, calmness, confusion, craving, disgust, empathic pain, entrancement, excitement, fear, horror, interest, joy, nostalgia, relief, romance, sadness, satisfaction, sexual desire, and surprise.

    Here’s the list in alphabetical order as well as links to their definitions.

    Emotions aren’t on an island

    We should note the study might not be perfect and there could be far more or fewer emotions experienced in real life. Additionally, the collection of data was based on self-reported answers.

    As the authors noted, “self-report measures only partially capture; self-report is not a direct readout of experience.”

    But it’s cool to think there are some universally identifiable emotions, potentially across cultural, geographical, and linguistic barriers, too (although this wasn’t assessed in the study).

    The 27 emotions identified also aren’t supposed to be thought of as sitting on a lonely island. Keltner said:

    “There are smooth gradients of emotion between, say, awe and peacefulness, horror and sadness, and amusement and adoration.”

    Life, after all, isn’t composed of simple 0s and 1s, even if many of like to think of such binary terms. The other author, Cowen, mentioned:

    “We don’t get finite clusters of emotions in the map because everything is interconnected. Emotional experiences are so much richer and more nuanced than previously thought.”

    If you’re interested in knowing more about the study or seeing how the videos were mapped out by participants in terms of emotions, the authors created an interactive map (viewer discretion advised).

    What other theories of emotion are there?

    Psychology is often not an exact science, and whenever this occurs you’ll find multiple theories explaining how our internals work and function. Here are a few of the main alternate theories on how many emotions people actually have.

    Charles Darwin’s theory of emotions

    After publishing On the Origin of Species and The Descent of Man, Charles Darwin released his third major piece on evolutionary psychology called The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. In this book, Darwin explores the universality of emotions among animals and humankind, and discusses 34 separate emotions:

    1. Anxiety
    2. Devotion
    3. High spirits
    4. Low spirits
    5. Patience
    6. Affirmation
    7. Negation
    8. Surprise
    9. Joy
    10. Love
    11. Hatred
    12. Disdain
    13. Contempt
    14. Tender feelings
    15. Suffering
    16. Weeping
    17. Grief
    18. Blushing
    19. Reflection
    20. Mediation
    21. Determination
    22. Dejection
    23. Despair
    24. Anger
    25. Disgust
    26. Guilt
    27. Pride
    28. Helplessness
    29. Ill-temper
    30. Sulkiness
    31. Fear
    32. Self-attention
    33. Shyness
    34. Modesty

    His conclusion showed he believed there were six basic shared emotional states: happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise and disgust.

    Robert Plutchik’s theory of emotions

    The prolific psychologist Robert Plutchik had a focus on emotional responses and how they might influence people. As part of his research, he came to the conclusion that people possess eight primary emotions:

    1. Fear
    2. Anger
    3. Joy
    4. Sadness
    5. Acceptance
    6. Disgust
    7. Anticipation
    8. Surprise

    If you’ve ever studied writing before, you’re probably familiar with Plutchik’s Wheel of Emotions, which aims to illustrate his theory in a color wheel. It’s a good tool for authors looking to explore their characters’ different emotions and feelings when stuck for words.

    Discrete emotion theory

    This theory has been in development since Darwin’s work mentioned above. It’s along the same idea — that humans universally experience a set of distinct emotions. In the latest iteration of the theory, psychologist Carroll Izard proposes there are 12 discrete emotions shared by humans:

    1. Interest
    2. Joy
    3. Surprise
    4. Sadness
    5. Anger
    6. Disgust
    7. Contempt
    8. Self-hostility
    9. Fear
    10. Shame
    11. Shyness
    12. Guilt

    Book two of Aristotle’s theory

    In book two of Aristotle’s classic, Rhetoric, he outlines a series of 14 emotions he thinks are universal. But note they might be considered somewhat dated as this was released around 2400 years ago.

    Aristotle’s list of emotions included:

    • Anger
    • Calm
    • Friendship
    • Enmity
    • Fear
    • Confidence
    • Shame
    • Shamelessness
    • Kindness
    • Unkindness
    • Pity
    • Indignation
    • Envy
    • Emulation

    Takeaway

    According to researchers, we humble humans experience over 6,000 thoughts per day. At least 90% of our waking hours also constitute at least one ongoing emotion. And this jumps between 3 to 30 separate emotions depending on different studies.

    In short, while different researchers posit we might have 6, 8, or even 27 distinct emotions throughout our lives, the absolute truth is, we are emotional beasts!

    We experience anger while feeling sad when a loved one gets taken away too early. We feel joy and anticipation when we make progress on personal projects. Our emotions are truly a wheel of craziness that scientists might never nail down to their exact parts.

    But that’s okay, because at the end of the day, knowing how to control and take advantage of your own emotions is probably more important than knowing the distinct number of them available to the human species.

    And for that, your best bet is probably learning about the different forms of meditation — something scientifically proven to help us regulate our mood and bring on an increased level of relaxation and contentment.


    J.J. Pryor

    Head over here for more of my written shenanigans.

  • The History of Cuy Guinea Pigs - It’s What’s for Dinner

     “We’re all of us guinea pigs in the laboratory of God. Humanity is just a work in progress.”-Tennessee Williams

    When I was a kid, my family adopted this strange little beast called a guinea pig. Wilbur would oink incessantly when we opened the fridge to give him lettuce. He’d stand on his hind legs and knock the cage lid for attention. He’d even run around in the non-fenced backyard and come back to the sliding door when he wanted in.

    Plus, he was cute as beans.

    Pretty crazy for what I thought was essentially a chubby tailless rat. But never in the few special years we had him did I ever think about eating him for dinner.

    The history of guinea pigs

    While many of us are familiar with guinea pigs as being the cute little oinking creatures popular with children in North America, the animal is actually pretty unique.

    Firstly, they don’t exist naturally in the wild. That is, guinea pigs were domesticated and bred for meat for thousands of years. In 2010, some studies were done to trace the origin of the animals.

    Their conclusion?

    Guinea pigs’ ancestors were likely a species of cavies known as C. tschudii, an animal still found across South America in the wild.

    And just in case you think they’re a more recent phenomenon of breeding, researchers think guinea pigs were first domesticated for food by indigenous people in the Andes around 7,000 years ago! There’s even evidence of statues showing ancient people in these areas worshipped them among other animals.

    And then came the Europeans in the 1500s.

    Spanish, Dutch, and English explorers/brutal conquerors started taking guinea pigs back to their countries to trade during this time.

    The animals were an instant hit — although not as food.

    The aristocracy thought these cute little alienesque creatures were amazing, and they quickly become the next “must-have” for anyone with enough money. Even Queen Elizabeth I was known to have a guinea pig as a pet.

    From there, people bred the cute little creatures and they eventually ended up as popular pets across the Western world.

    Why are they called guinea pigs or cavies?

    Maybe you’re more used to guinea pigs being called Ariel or Cookie or Ginger, but sadly, that’s not their common nor scientific name.

    I’m also sure most of you can guess guinea pigs aren’t related to pigs. But oddly enough, they’re not from Guinea in Africa, or Guyana either. In reality, the origin of the name guinea pigs isn’t exactly known for sure.

    There are a few theories of course.

    Some posit the word “guinea” in Europe used to refer to things from far away. That and the trademark oinking noise guinea pigs make might’ve led to the name combination.

    A debunked theory states they’re called guinea because an English gold coin of the same name was supposedly the cost of one guinea pig. Yet, the animals were known from writings dating to 1554, and the coins weren’t created for another century.

    As for being called cavies, the taxonomic name is Cavia porcellus, denoting the genus Cavia and the species of porcellus.

    In South America, the animals are usually called cuy and are still raised for meat to this day! Lastly, there is one breed of large guinea pigs in North America called Cuy Criollo, which stands for giant guinea pig.

    Guinea pigs as food today

    I’m sure it might come to disappoint a few of you, but guinea pigs are still a common dish eaten today in certain parts of Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Colombia.

    The reason is threefold. Guinea pigs require far less space to raise, they breed like rabbits, and they (apparently) taste like dark chicken meat — as in, not bad at all.

    In Peru alone, over 65 million guinea pigs are raised and consumed each year. Oink, indeed.

    In fact, the animal is so popular and ingrained in Peru’s history, that a famous painting of The Last Supper in 1753 by artist Marcos Zapata hangs in the Cuzco Cathedral.

    What was for dinner in this version?

    You guessed it — cuy!

    The Last Supper, 1753, by Marcos Zapata with a guinea pig as the main dish
    The Last Supper, 1753, by Marcos Zapata, Public Domain

    My own encounter with guinea pigs as a food

    I never really thought of these animals as being food before, either. That is until one day around five years ago.

    I attended a festival at a sort of hippie commune here in Taiwan and was absolutely delighted to see a large moat surrounding a miniature village and barn full of these fluffy little creatures.

    It was only after settling in and talking to a few of the people that lived there that I realized the horrifying truth — they were raising them to be eaten.

    But after the initial shock, I learned more about the practice and why they eat them. In the end, I settled my own emotions of disgust with a bit of realization.

    This animal in particular has been raised and bred for thousands of years as mainly a food and animal to be praised and thanked for its gifts. The disgust lied with me and how I was raised, and with my experience of having Wilbur all those years ago.

    I wasn’t in a position to judge these people for how they viewed an animal, and with that feeling, I chose to learn more about the practice and why it was so.

    Pictures of cuy or guinea pig dishes

    And in case you’re curious, here are a few pictures of famous dishes using guinea pig as the main ingredient.

    User discretion is advised if you’re squeamish about the idea of eating guinea pigs.

    A cuy or guinea pig dish in Ecuador:

    A dish of cuy or guinea pig in Ecuador
    Photo by J. Miers, CC BY-SA 3.0

    A Peruvian dish with cuy or guinea pig:

    A Peruvian dish of cuy with vegetables
    Photo by CEllen, CC BY-SA 4.0

    Another guinea pig dish in Peru:

    A Peru dish of fried cuy
    Photo by Jorge Gobbi, CC BY 2.0

    Preparing a roast guinea pig or cuy in Ecuador:

    A cuy guinea pig being prepared for barbeque
    Photo by Diego Delso, CC BY-SA 4.0

    I hope that wasn’t too disturbing to see for those of you used to guinea pigs being purely pets.

    And just in case you’re wondering, no, I didn’t eat any of the guinea pigs — it simply wasn’t on the menu that day.


    J.J. Pryor

    Head over here for more of my written shenanigans.

  • Thor’s Well: Oregon’s Gate to Hell in the Pacific Ocean

    Take a three-hour drive down the west coast from Portland, and you’ll find yourself looking at a strange sight. The coast is beautiful, the waves are rolling, and then seemingly out of nowhere, the water goes — well, nowhere!

    During stormy weather and high tides, what appears to be a massive sinkhole shows up, sucking thousands of gallons of water into its dark depths. People refer to the strange sight in a few different ways. A “giant sinkhole,” a “gate to hell,” and the amusing “drainpipe of the Pacific.”

    But regardless of what it’s called, photographers flock to the site year-round to see its massive suction power.

    What is Thor’s Well?

    The publisher of Coast Explorer Magazine, Gary Hayes, figures the sinkhole is actually a sea cave that was dug out by waves over millennia. The surrounding shoreline is made of rough basalt, a volcanic mineral suitable to be carved out like this. At some point, the ceiling of the undersea cave collapsed and left openings for the ocean to sink its watery teeth into.

    While it’s completely dry at low tide, it starts its wondrous spectacle when the high tide approaches. Researchers estimate Thor’s Well is actually only around 20 feet deep, but it’s best not to test this theory yourself.

    If you do end up visiting the amazing area, please be careful! There are a few incidents every year where people get swept up by an unseen wave while taking pictures of the well.

    Thor’s Well photos and video

    A woman standing in front of Thor’s Well
    Photo by Falling-cosmosis, CC BY-SA 4.0
    Photo by John Fowler, CC BY 2.0
    Photo by Ashlyn G, CC BY 2.0

    How to get to Thor’s Well

    Thor’s well is located in Cape Perpetua, which is near the city Yachats, Oregon. Most tourists will visit the Cape Perpetua Visitors Center and park nearby at the Cook’s Chasm pull-out, then walk around the area to see the beautiful coastal views and of course, Thor’s Well itself. Here’s the exact address on Google maps, too.

    The best time to arrive is around an hour before the high tide that day to really take in the sights and watch the full process of this awesome force of nature.


    J.J. Pryor

    Head over here for more of my shenanigans.

  • What is a Simile? Examples, Definitions, and How to Create Them

    Tile blocks saying similies are like metaphores

    Photo by Brett Jordan on Unsplash

    Ever get bored of reading the dictionary? Or, like an owl trying to read a book during the daytime, did you just fall asleep? Most people don’t make dictionary reading a hobby for a simple reason — the formal language is as dull as a goat eating grass!

    And while the above examples of simile probably aren’t going to win me any Pultizer prizes, they did serve the make the opening paragraph a bit less dictionarylike.

    And that’s kind of the point of similes. They make language more fun, interesting, and keep our attention far longer than a plain old sentence.

    So, let’s take a look at just what similes are, some awesome examples, and how you can make your very own similes for writing, speeches, or even a standup routine.

    What is a simile?

    A simile is a figure of speech comparing two things, usually to emphasize or add imagination to a statement.

    You’ve probably heard this in grade school, too, but the most common words used in similes are “as”, “like”, “so”, and “than.” What you might not have heard, depending on your schooling, is that the object being compared is called the “tenor”, and the object being compared to is called the “vehicle.”

    The word originally comes from the Latin word “similis”, meaning similar or like.

    The word simile is pronounced “si·muh·lee”, also written as “/ˈsɪmɪli/”.

    What’s the difference between a simile and a metaphor?

    Similes and metaphors are both figures of speech that make a comparison between two things. The main difference is that a simile will say something is “like” something else (or “as”, “so”, “than”), but a metaphor will say something “is” something else.

    For example:

    • Simile: This article is as great as the constitution!
    • Metaphor: This article is the new constitution!

    How to create a simile?

    While creating similes often gets better with more practice over time, there are a few shortcuts you can use to create some awesome ones in just a few seconds.

    #1. Think of the basic premise of sentence

    For our example, let’s use:

    “The tiger is very strong.”

    #2. Now think of something representing the adjective you just used

    For this, you can use another object, animal, place, or anything that really strikes out in your mind. One cheat code here is to use Google, where you can search for great analogies to use. Just simply take your adjective and add “est” on the end of it. You can also just search for “a list of very strong things” or something along those lines.

    Let’s take the “strong” from the tiger sentence. If I punch “what are the strongest things in the world” into Google, I’ll get options anywhere from diamonds to beetles to bursts of gamma rays.

    And since I like the idea of a huge dose of radiation being stronger than an animal’s muscle, we’ll get something like this:

    “The tiger was as strong as a massive blast of gamma rays.”

    #3. You don’t have to use “as”

    If we weren’t quite satisfied with that sentence, we could play around with it using “like”, “so”, or “than”:

    • The tiger was like a blast of gamma rays, no one survived its approach.
    • A blast of gamma rays is incredibly strong, and so is the tiger.
    • The tiger was stronger than a blast of gamma rays when it pounced.

    Regardless of which sentence you like (or hate!), the point is to play around, find some more comparisons, and pick the one that you like the most! Then feel free to add some adjectives or adverbs for a little more flavor (like the use of “massive” above).

    That’s it!

    30 Examples of similes using like, as, so, and than

    1. She’s as brave as a lion
    2. He’s as dumb as a doorknob
    3. He’s as smart as an octopus
    4. He’s as busy as a bee
    5. She’s as sweet as honey.
    6. They’re plumper than a pumpkin.
    7. She’s as blind as a bat.
    8. The seat was as cold as ice.
    9. Her style is as cool as a cucumber.
    10. His ironed shirt was as fresh as a daisy.
    11. It’s as fun as watching paint dry.
    12. It hurts like the devil.
    13. My stomach is rumbling like a freight train.
    14. Shine bright like a diamond.
    15. She hits like a rock.
    16. It cuts like butter.
    17. Superman flew like a speeding bullet.
    18. Life is like a box of chocolates.
    19. She looks like a fish out of water.
    20. It tastes like chalk.
    21. He eats like a pig.
    22. Bad things can hurt you and so can overpriced coffee.
    23. Death and taxes are certain, so are you singing in the shower.
    24. Eternity will stay and so will you, frozen in my mind forever.
    25. She’s more beautiful than a flower in the morning dew.
    26. His intellect is more powerful than a supercomputer.
    27. The cat was furrier than a fat buffalo.
    28. The sky was darker than a black hole.
    29. He was funnier than Bill Burr.
    30. She was cuter than Minnie Mouse.

     

    J.J. Pryor

    Head over here for more of my shenanigans.

  • The Hilarious Last Words of 10 Famous People from History

    A skeleton smiling in the woods                             Photo by Chris J Mitchell from Pexels
    We sat there philosophizing and passing around a bong full of medicine. These types of hangouts can often lead to some interesting discussions.

    This occasion was no different.

    If your plane was crashing, what would you do?” someone asked out of the blue (haze of medicine).

    Naturopathic practitioner #1: “Call my parents.

    Medicinal enthusiast #2: “Pray.”

    The person taking up a few minutes of your time today: “Tell a joke.” My friends looked confused at my answer. “WTF does that mean, JJ?”

    Speaking through the haze, all I could mutter was something about not wanting my last act in the universe to be anything but positive.

    Or to quote an updated Shakespearean proverb of our time, “YOLO, brolo.”

    You only live once. And once it’s over — we’re done.

    But our light continues shining into the netherverse. Our last act would thus be our last imprint on the history of, well, everything.

    So I’d rather smile than scream or pray or try to connect through a phone I’ve never gotten to connect on an airplane. One last moment of bliss amidst the chaos that is our life. And if it were a joke with a positive connotation — all the better.

    Of course, my words didn’t come out like this. I’m not always so good at explaining my odd way of thinking when pressed for time. (Nor while inhaling blue haze at a bong mitzvah.)

    Most of my friends didn’t quite understand my point, but one had an all-knowing smile slowly creep over his face: “No, I get it, man.

    I may not have had time to think through what I wanted to say with my mouth typing that night, but the following men and women had months or even years to ponder what their last light on the world would be.

    And they chose to have fun with it.

    I get that too, man.

    I hope you enjoy this list of funny famous last words.


    “Good. A woman who can fart is not dead.”

    These are the suspected last words of Louise-Marie-Thérèse de Saint Maurice…right after passing some audible gas.

    She was a victim* of the French revolution.

    A friend of Marie Antoinette and the heiress to the largest fortune in France at the time.

    *Or justly prosecuted — depending on your perspective of $600 stimulus checks after not being able to afford rent for 9 months.


    “How about this for a headline for tomorrow’s paper? French fries.”

    Who says murderers can’t have a sense of humor?

    James French killed a hitchhiker in cold blood in 1958. He was granted leniency from execution and given a life sentence.

    Even though he requested the chair several times, the criminal justice system didn’t want to listen.

    So, he murdered his cellmate after treating him to a steak breakfast as a form of last meal. The judges changed their mind and sent him to the chair to fry later on.


    “I’d hate to die twice. It’s so boring.”

    Richard Feynman is often ranked as one of history’s top physicists.

    His work on the atomic bomb, several important quantum physics theorems, and winning a Nobel Prize certainly attest to that.

    He was also fond of pranks, jokes, and general mischief — a practice he kept up until his very last words.


    “And now for a final word from our sponsor.”

    Charles Gussman was an early creator of soap operas and a prolific radio announcer.

    And he always had a knack for seeing the lighter side of things.

    On his deathbed in his last moments, he took off his oxygen mask to say the above line before his dying light set in.


    “I done told you my last request… a bulletproof vest.”

    Another convicted murderer with a devilish sense of humor, perhaps.

    James W. Rodgers was the last person in the US executed by firing squad until the Supreme Court later reinstated the death penalty in 1974.

    When offered a coat before shortly before his execution, he replied:

    “Don’t worry, I’ll be where it’s warm soon.”


    “I’m tired of being the funniest person in the room.”

    Del Close is a legend in improv circles. He was the unofficial coach and mentor of dozens of famous modern-day comedians during a long stint at SNL in its early days.

    That’s not an overstatement.

    He trained the likes of:

    Dan Aykroyd, James + John Belushi, John Candy, Stephen Colbert, Andy Dick, Chris Farley, Jon Favreau, Tina Fey, Adam McKay, Susan Messing, Bill Murray, Mike Myers, Bob Odenkirk, Amy Poehler, Harold Ramis, and Andy Richter.

    If you’re interested, he co-authored a book on the intricacies of how to be funny in improvisation.


    “Now is no time to make new enemies.”

    François-Marie Arouet was a prolific French author of over 2,000 books and short pieces during his lifetime. He was also famous for his stance against organized religion and for the separation of church and state.

    You probably know him better as Voltaire, his nom-de-plume.

    When prodded by a priest to renounce Satan on his death bed, he said the above line.

    The church refused to bury him.

    Some of his close friends instead had him secretly buried at a church in another town where the priest was a personal connection.


    “I desire to go to Hell and not to Heaven. In the former, I shall enjoy the company of popes, kings, and princes. While in the latter are only beggars, monks and apostles.”

    The inspiration for fanatical dictators all over the world, Niccolo Machiavelli was an Italian philosopher and diplomat from Florence.

    His most famous piece is thought by a few historians to be satirical, but most people believe The Prince was meant as a guide for new royalty.

    It advocated rulers to not worry about being nefarious as long as the outcome was beneficial to the ruled. The ends justified the means.

    I have a feeling most autocratic leaders chose to ignore the latter half of that intention.

    Either way, he had a love for comedy and wrote several plays throughout his life to bring the joy of laughter to people around Europe.


    “You have me well done on one side, turn me over and eat!”

    The patron saint of comedians said something similar to this while being slowly executed overtop a roasting fire for his religious beliefs.

    Here’s a brief idea of what happened to St. Lawrence in his last moments:

    The executioners therefore stripped him, laid him out on the iron grill, piled burning coals under it, and pressed heated iron pitchforks upon his body. And with a cheerful countenance [Lawrence] said to [the Roman official]: ‘Look, wretch, you have me well done on one side, turn me over and eat!’”

    Witty to the end.


    “This wallpaper is dreadful. One of us will have to go.”

    The legendary Oscar Wilde, author, poet, and playwright, was thought to have said this as his final phrase in life.

    Known for his sharp wit, flamboyant clothing, and a knack for interior decoration — these last words would certainly suit him if true.


    Some of the people in the above list were not good human beings, but I can appreciate a little light even in the dark.

    Having the strength and conviction to keep your sense of humor until the very end is certainly a quality I admire in a person.

    I hope my own last words will be witty enough to be written down someday.

    If you have the chance to choose, what will yours be?


    J.J. Pryor

    Head over here for more of my shenanigans.

  • The True History of the MacArthur Genius Grant

    An old black and white insurance advertisment

                         Photo Credit: “The family friend,” insurance advertisement, Library of Congress, CC

    “I figured out how to make the money. You fellows will have to figure out how to spend it.”

    With every fall comes auburn leaves, overpriced pumpkin lattes, and palpable excitement over an obscure merit-based lottery only a few can ever hope to achieve.

    That time of year where The MacArthur Fellows Program doles out their annual allotment of $625,000 to those “who have shown extraordinary originality and dedication in their creative pursuits.”

    Among the most famous recipients of the “genius grant” are civil rights activist Marian Wright Edelman, Stanford biologist Paul R. Ehrlich, and choreographer Twyla Tharp.

    A truly amazing achievement. A time for celebration of exceptionalism in unadulterated charity. A possible day of recognition in the future for the ingenious invention of the peanut butter tuna sandwich.

    But the reason to create the benevolent $7.5 billion private foundation in the first place is almost equally malevolent.

    The Founding Father

    The foundation was founded (yes, me write good words) by none other than John D. MacArthur. Born in 1897 in relative poverty, John went on to pursue education to the highest aspirational levels of the modern-day conservative movement.

    He dropped out in the eighth grade.

    Of note, the Basic Ethics and Morals 101 was likely a class in grade 9.

    John’s father was a Baptist preacher. His brother won an Academy Award as a screenwriter. His sister-in-law was the famous actress Helen Hayes. Another brother owned a small insurance company.

    John went into sales.

    He tried out a few different jobs over the early years, but one niche kept dragging his interest back to the desk. Selling insurance.

    He got a taste of insurance early on working with his brother. People got a taste of John’s ethics later on when he left his first wife and two children to marry his hot secretary.

    Now with a bit of cash — her family was somewhat wealthy — they went and bought a struggling small life insurance company called Banker’s Life and Casualty, running the company alongside his new investor-with-benefits.

    Too Poor to Insure?

    One century ago, most life insurance was only affordable to the wealthy class. John set out to change that by offering industry-breaking $1 policies and heavily advertising them in local newspapers around the country.

    He also took the innovative step of mailing out his offer to thousands of homes in a flyer, something uncommon at the time. It may or may not be a coincidence Spam was invented around then, too.

    Regardless of relation to delicious canned goods, it seemed John had a decent flair for marketing. But alas, he really should’ve attended that grade nine ethics class.

    A delicious looking plate of Spam in front of leaves
    Photo Credit: Neil Motteram on Wikimedia Commons, CC2.0

    Business Was Booming

    Sales exploded but costs didn’t. A sure recipe for success if there ever was one. Customers around the U.S. could now afford insurance, regardless of income level.

    Marketing accolades rolled in. Business groups praised his new-age jazzy style of doing insurance. 14 state insurance departments even gave him a call to chat.

    It turns out, Johnny boy had a few unwritten policies most customers were unaware of:

    Policy #1: His company frequently made “mistakes” in the addresses of insurance payout checks. The exact same houses with correctly written addresses for the initial advertisements (spam).

    Policy #2: It was standard practice to discard claims — perhaps even automatically — and instead only helped customers if they repeatedly chased them.

    Denying people their legally due payments in their greatest time of need?

    “No problem!” — John, Probably.

    Yet another strike in the long list of massive companies who made their fortunes off of scamming hard-working Americans out of their money. In this case, people likely went bankrupt, lost their homes, livelihoods, and more.

    Hurray for bootstraps!

    It’s Never Too Late to Change

    But don’t worry my young leftist friends, he changed his ways. His company received countless accolades in the 1940s for being one of the only large employers in the country to employ hundreds of older and handicapped workers.

    Such a drastic society-benefiting work policy that pre-dated many workers’ rights legislations? By god, this man was a visionary! So, of course, the press praised him. You would praise him. I would praise him. Who wouldn’t?

    John received so much positive press about the employment policy he self-financed a documentary to show how great his idea (he) was.

    “America’s Untapped Assets” was shown frequently on TV as a public service and eventually resulted in John getting a special commendation from the President’s Committee!

    The crux?

    “(The) basement ceilings were unusually low. … Bankers was still able to make this usable space, however, by hiring dwarfs as custodians.”

    It turns out Bankers Life’s office building had a lot of nearly unusable space in its cramped basement. That’s not a problem if you’re named John and hire “dwarves” and wheelchair-bound employees to work in those claustrophobic possibly dangerous quarters.

    I’m sure his Employee Wanted Ads said something along the lines of “You’ll fit right in!” in the brazen version of political correctness of the time.

    Scam One, Scam ’Em All

    At one point, his second wife left him after discovering a few minor details of the man she married:

    • They were never legally married 20 years earlier.
    • She wasn’t legally entitled to any part of this new massive life insurance industry.
    • He had attempted to secretly seize ownership of his wife’s stock.
    • He frequently enjoyed groping unwilling female employees.

    Fortunately, she eventually came to her senses and reunited with him. Because — money? They worked out their differences and put her legally on the books for everything.

    All’s Well That Ends Well. For Billionaires.

    Years later when it came time to retire, John had another problem. He was one of only two billionaires in all of the US! Wait, that was society’s problem, not his.

    Phew, I’m sure glad we solved that one and don’t have 724 of them now.

    His real problem?

    He didn’t want his left-leaning kids wasting his hard-won fortune. And since he didn’t want to leave his wealth to them, that meant the government would get its dirty dirty paws on his life-denying money and business.

    His will “was a disaster from a tax and estate planning perspective…The federal government would take most of it in taxes.”

    That’s a big no-no in billionaires books if you haven’t been paying attention.

    Benevolence at its Finest

    What do you do if you’re one of the richest people in the world and don’t want to pay taxes?

    Start a charity! A strong tradition that continues to this day.

    He set up the MacArthur Fellows Program with the mission to avoid taxes, ensuring his fortune would keep on benefitting absolutely no one. He filled it with a bevy of conservatives; radio commentator Paul Harvey, two Banker’s Life executives, and former Nixon administration Treasury Secretary William Simon.

    He also plopped his son on the board, J. Roderick MacArthur, having reconciled their relationship in his older years.

    His staunchly liberal son.

    The MacArthur Foundation

    John had a simple message to the board members:

    “I figured out how to make the money. You fellows will have to figure out how to spend it.”

    And they did.

    They promptly started distributing the money to all of their favorite heavily conservative causes of the time. Presumably anything related to prolonging the suffering of 90% of Americans. And guns for babies.

    But his son had his own thoughts on the organization:

    “The idea behind the foundation was as a tax dodge that he [his father] thought would allow his business executives to run his company forever. He clearly didn’t understand the tax laws.”

    The next few years involved Roderick trying to wrest control over the foundation from his uber-conservative counterparts.

    • He expanded the board to 13 from 6 and included members from academia, science, and government in 1979
    • He ardently opposed any funds going to purely conservative political causes and battled Nixon’s Treasury Secretary until the conservative resigned in disgust
    • In 1984, Roderick filed suit against several of the board members who continued spouting conservative causes and were profiting from the donations, eventually dropping the suit a month before his death from cancer

    Fast Forward

    While Roderick died before seeing most of his dreams for the foundation come to fruition, his actions had a long-lasting effect on the organization.

    They implemented many of his changes in the years after his death. General observers now feel the “genius grant” is rationed out to left-leaning causes.

    They just might be right. Its current mission involves funding for several broad causes:

    • Climate change solutions
    • Prison and justice system reform
    • Disease research
    • Decreasing nuclear risk
    • Supporting nonprofit journalism

    I couldn’t create a more anti-MAGA list of goals if I was paid to by Hillary.

    The MacArthur Foundation is now in the top 15 of the wealthiest charities in America. It’s given away more than $7 billion in grants since its first donation in 1978. It’s one of the world’s leading contributors to funding liberal causes.

    And yet, it was founded on the greedy notion of dodging tax and perpetuating a giant organization built on defrauding poor Americans who just wanted to help their families.

    And that’s how a massive insurance fraud turned out to be great for society in the end.

    If that isn’t irony at its finest, I don’t know what is.


     

  • 😎 Huge List of Unicode and Emoji Symbols to Copy and Paste 😀

    Emoji symbols to copy and paste

     

    Here is a massive list (categorized of course) of emojis, symbols, Unicode characters, and pretty much everything else you would need to spruce up your essays, articles, and projects!

    Just copy and paste any of these symbols to use them. You can also try double-clicking a symbol to save time highlighting it.

    These symbols are almost all cross-platform, so they should work on every device and social media platform.

    If you’re looking to make a fancy name for your profile or webpage, you can also try searching for a Unicode text converter tool. Here is an example tool for that (but Google has many more).

    You can also try using CTRL + F to find a character or category in the below symbols (ex. search for ‘Face’ to find face emojis).

    👍👍👍Enjoy your Emoji-ing below. Good luck and have fun! 👍👍👍

    Emojis, Unicode, Subscripts, Superscripts, and math symbols to copy and paste

    Most common Unicode characters:

    These are the most used Unicode symbols!

    • Up arrow: ↑ ↟ ↥ ⇈ ⇑ ⇞ ⇡ ⇧ ⇪ ⇫ ⇬ ⇭ ⇮ ⇯
    • Down arrow: ↓ ↡ ↧ ⇊ ⇓ ⇟ ⇣ ⇩
    • Right arrow: → ↝ ↪ ↬ ↷ ↻ ↠ ↦ ⇉ ⇏ ⇒ ⇛ ⇝ ⇢ ⇨ ⇰ ⇴ ⇸ ⇻ ⇾
    • Left arrow: ← ↚ ↜ ↞ ↢ ↤ ↩ ↫ ↶ ↺ ↻ ⇇ ⇍ ⇐ ⇚ ⇜ ⇠ ⇤ ⇦ ⇷ ⇺ ⇽
    • Check mark: ☐ ☑ ☒ ✓ ⍻ ✅ ✔ 🗸 🗹
    • Hearts: ❦ ♡ ❧ ☙ ❥ ღ ❤ 💚 💛 🧡 ❤️ 🤎 💞 💕
    • S️tars: ★ ☆ ✪ ✵ ✯ ٭ ✭ ✰ 🌟 ✡ ⚝ ⚹ ✹ ✷ ⍟ ❃ ✫ ✧ ✦
    • Bullet points: • ◦ ‣ ∙ ⦿ ⁃ ⦾ ⁍ ◘
    • Thumbs up and down: 👍 👎 ☝ 🖒 🖓
    • Dots: · ⋅ ⸳ ․ ⊙ ˙ ̣ ◌ ݀ ‥ ⁘ ⁞ ⸭ ⦙ ⸽ ⁛ ⊡ ⁖ ⁙ ᠅ ⬚
    • Music notes: 🎵 🎜 🎶𝅝 𝅗𝅥 𝅘𝅥 𝅘𝅥𝅮 𝅘𝅥𝅯 𝅘𝅥𝅰 𝅘𝅥𝅱 𝆔 𝅘𝅥𝅲 𝇠 𝇢 𝇣 𝆕 𝇤 𝇧 🎝
    • Degree symbol: ° ℃ ℉ 𝆩 𒎓
    • Infinity symbol: ∞ ⧞ ⧝ ⧜
    • Equal signs: ≈ ≠ = ≅ ≃ ≔ ⊜ ₌ ⁼ ≗ ⋜ ⋝ ≛ ≜ ≟ ≕ ≉ ≑
    • Trademark symbols: ™ © ℗ ® ℠
    • Squares: ■ □ ▢ ▣ ▤ ▦ ◩ ◪ ◩ ◧ ◦
    • Rectangles: ▬ ▭ ▮ ▯ ▰ ▱
    • Triangles: ▷ △ ▽ ◁ ▼ ▲ ◭ ◮
    • Circles: ● ◉ ◎ ○ ◖ ◗ ◒ ◓ ◔ ◕ ◡ ◠
    • Cross symbols: ˟ ⨯ ❌ ✝ ❎ 🕇 🞡 ✚ ✞ 🞤 ⛌ ✠ ♱✟ 🕈☨
    • Delta: Δ 𝚫 𝝙 𝛥 ⍙ ⍍ ⍋
    • Hammer and sickle: ☭
    • Pi symbol: 𝜋
    • Box symbol: 🮮 ☐

    Arrow Unicode symbols to copy and paste

    ← ↑ → ↓ ↔ ↕ ↖ ↗ ↘ ↙ ↚ ↛ ↜ ↝ ↞ ↟ ↠ ↡ ↢ ↣ ↤ ↥ ↦ ↧ ↨ ↩ ↪ ↫ ↬ ↭ ↮ ↯ ↰ ↱ ↲ ↳ ↴ ↵ ↶ ↷ ↸ ↹ ↺ ↻ ↼ ↽ ↾ ↿ ⇀ ⇁ ⇂ ⇃ ⇄ ⇅ ⇆ ⇇ ⇈ ⇉ ⇊ ⇋ ⇌ ⇍ ⇎ ⇏ ⇐ ⇑ ⇒ ⇓ ⇔ ⇕ ⇖ ⇗ ⇘ ⇙ ⇚ ⇛ ⇜ ⇝ ⇞ ⇟ ⇠ ⇡ ⇢ ⇣ ⇤ ⇥ ⇦ ⇧ ⇨ ⇩ ⇪ ⇫ ⇬ ⇭ ⇮ ⇯ ⇰ ⇱ ⇲ ⇳ ⇴ ⇵ ⇶ ⇷ ⇸ ⇹ ⇺ ⇻ ⇼ ⇽ ⇾ ⇿


    Face emojis to copy and paste

    😀 😁 😂 😃 😄 😅 😆 😇 😈 😉 😊 😋 😌 😍 😎 😏
    😐 😑 😒 😓 😔 😕 😖 😗 😘 😙 😚 😛 😜 😝 😞 😟
    😠 😡 😢 😣 😤 😥 😦 😧 😨 😩 😪 😫 😬 😭 😮 😯
    😰 😱 😲 😳 😴 😵 😶 😷 😸 😹 😺 😻 😼 😽 😾 😿
    🙀 🙁 🙂 🙃 🙄 🙅 🙆 🙇 🙈 🙉 🙊 🙋 🙌 🙍 🙎 🙏


    Miscellaneous emojis and Unicode symbols

    👍 👎 ☀ ☁ ☂ ☃ ☄ ★ ☆ ☇ ☈ ☉ ☊ ☋ ☌ ☍ ☎ ☏
    ☐ ☑ ☒ ☓ ☔ ☕ ☖ ☗ ☘ ☙ ☚ ☛ ☜ ☝ ☞ ☟
    ☠ ☡ ☢ ☣ ☤ ☥ ☦ ☧ ☨ ☩ ☪ ☫ ☬ ☭ ☮ ☯
    ☰ ☱ ☲ ☳ ☴ ☵ ☶ ☷ ☸ ☹ ☺ ☻ ☼ ☽ ☾ ☿
    ♀ ♁ ♂ ♃ ♄ ♅ ♆ ♇ ♈ ♉ ♊ ♋ ♌ ♍ ♎ ♏
    ♐ ♑ ♒ ♓ ♔ ♕ ♖ ♗ ♘ ♙ ♚ ♛ ♜ ♝ ♞ ♟
    ♠ ♡ ♢ ♣ ♤ ♥ ♦ ♧ ♨ ♩ ♪ ♫ ♬ ♭ ♮ ♯
    ♰ ♱ ♲ ♳ ♴ ♵ ♶ ♷ ♸ ♹ ♺ ♻ ♼ ♽ ♾ ♿
    ⚀ ⚁ ⚂ ⚃ ⚄ ⚅ ⚆ ⚇ ⚈ ⚉ ⚊ ⚋ ⚌ ⚍ ⚎ ⚏
    ⚐ ⚑ ⚒ ⚓ ⚔ ⚕ ⚖ ⚗ ⚘ ⚙ ⚚ ⚛ ⚜ ⚝ ⚞ ⚟
    ⚠ ⚡ ⚢ ⚣ ⚤ ⚥ ⚦ ⚧ ⚨ ⚩ ⚪ ⚫ ⚬ ⚭ ⚮ ⚯
    ⚰ ⚱ ⚲ ⚳ ⚴ ⚵ ⚶ ⚷ ⚸ ⚹ ⚺ ⚻ ⚼ ⚽ ⚾ ⚿
    ⛀ ⛁ ⛂ ⛃ ⛄ ⛅ ⛆ ⛇ ⛈ ⛉ ⛊ ⛋ ⛌ ⛍ ⛎ ⛏
    ⛐ ⛑ ⛒ ⛓ ⛔ ⛕ ⛖ ⛗ ⛘ ⛙ ⛚ ⛛ ⛜ ⛝ ⛞ ⛟
    ⛠ ⛡ ⛢ ⛣ ⛤ ⛥ ⛦ ⛧ ⛨ ⛩ ⛪ ⛫ ⛬ ⛭ ⛮ ⛯
    ⛰ ⛱ ⛲ ⛳ ⛴ ⛵ ⛶ ⛷ ⛸ ⛹ ⛺ ⛻ ⛼ ⛽ ⛾ ⛿


    Food emojis to copy and paste

    • ☕ — hot beverage
    • ⛾ — restaurant
    • 🍅 — tomato
    • 🍊 — tangerine
    • 🍏 — green apple
    • 🥑 — avocado
    • 🍔 — hamburger
    • 🍕 — slice of pizza
    • 🍙 — rice ball
    • 🍞 — bread
    • 🍣 — sushi
    • 🍨 — ice cream
    • 🍭 — lollipop
    • 🍲 — pot of food
    • 🍷 — wine glass
    • 🍼 — baby bottle
    • 🍓 — strawberry

    Line shapes in Unicode to copy and paste

    ─ ━ │ ┃ ┄ ┅ ┆ ┇ ┈ ┉ ┊ ┋ ┌ ┍ ┎ ┏
    ┐ ┑ ┒ ┓ └ ┕ ┖ ┗ ┘ ┙ ┚ ┛ ├ ┝ ┞ ┟
    ┠ ┡ ┢ ┣ ┤ ┥ ┦ ┧ ┨ ┩ ┪ ┫ ┬ ┭ ┮ ┯
    ┰ ┱ ┲ ┳ ┴ ┵ ┶ ┷ ┸ ┹ ┺ ┻ ┼ ┽ ┾ ┿
    ╀ ╁ ╂ ╃ ╄ ╅ ╆ ╇ ╈ ╉ ╊ ╋ ╌ ╍ ╎ ╏
    ═ ║ ╒ ╓ ╔ ╕ ╖ ╗ ╘ ╙ ╚ ╛ ╜ ╝ ╞ ╟
    ╠ ╡ ╢ ╣ ╤ ╥ ╦ ╧ ╨ ╩ ╪ ╫ ╬ ╭ ╮ ╯
    ╰ ╱ ╲ ╳ ╴ ╵ ╶ ╷ ╸ ╹ ╺ ╻ ╼ ╽ ╾ ╿


    Circled letters and numbers

    ① ② ③ ④ ⑤ ⑥ ⑦ ⑧ ⑨ ⑩ ⑪ ⑫ ⑬ ⑭ ⑮ ⑯
    ⑰ ⑱ ⑲ ⑳ ⑴ ⑵ ⑶ ⑷ ⑸ ⑹ ⑺ ⑻ ⑼ ⑽ ⑾ ⑿
    ⒀ ⒁ ⒂ ⒃ ⒄ ⒅ ⒆ ⒇ ⒈ ⒉ ⒊ ⒋ ⒌ ⒍ ⒎ ⒏
    ⒐ ⒑ ⒒ ⒓ ⒔ ⒕ ⒖ ⒗ ⒘ ⒙ ⒚ ⒛ ⒜ ⒝ ⒞ ⒟
    ⒠ ⒡ ⒢ ⒣ ⒤ ⒥ ⒦ ⒧ ⒨ ⒩ ⒪ ⒫ ⒬ ⒭ ⒮ ⒯
    ⒰ ⒱ ⒲ ⒳ ⒴ ⒵ Ⓐ Ⓑ Ⓒ Ⓓ Ⓔ Ⓕ Ⓖ Ⓗ Ⓘ Ⓙ
    Ⓚ Ⓛ Ⓜ Ⓝ Ⓞ Ⓟ Ⓠ Ⓡ Ⓢ Ⓣ Ⓤ Ⓥ Ⓦ Ⓧ Ⓨ Ⓩ
    ⓐ ⓑ ⓒ ⓓ ⓔ ⓕ ⓖ ⓗ ⓘ ⓙ ⓚ ⓛ ⓜ ⓝ ⓞ ⓟ
    ⓠ ⓡ ⓢ ⓣ ⓤ ⓥ ⓦ ⓧ ⓨ ⓩ ⓪ ⓫ ⓬ ⓭ ⓮ ⓯
    ⓰ ⓱ ⓲ ⓳ ⓴ ⓵ ⓶ ⓷ ⓸ ⓹ ⓺ ⓻ ⓼ ⓽ ⓾ ⓿


    Math symbols to copy and paste

    ∀ ∁ ∂ ∃ ∄ ∅ ∆ ∇ ∈ ∉ ∊ ∋ ∌ ∍ ∎ ∏
    ∐ ∑ − ∓ ∔ ∕ ∖ ∗ ∘ ∙ √ ∛ ∜ ∝ ∞ ∟
    ∠ ∡ ∢ ∣ ∤ ∥ ∦ ∧ ∨ ∩ ∪ ∫ ∬ ∭ ∮ ∯
    ∰ ∱ ∲ ∳ ∴ ∵ ∶ ∷ ∸ ∹ ∺ ∻ ∼ ∽ ∾ ∿
    ≀ ≁ ≂ ≃ ≄ ≅ ≆ ≇ ≈ ≉ ≊ ≋ ≌ ≍ ≎ ≏
    ≐ ≑ ≒ ≓ ≔ ≕ ≖ ≗ ≘ ≙ ≚ ≛ ≜ ≝ ≞ ≟
    ≠ ≡ ≢ ≣ ≤ ≥ ≦ ≧ ≨ ≩ ≪ ≫ ≬ ≭ ≮ ≯
    ≰ ≱ ≲ ≳ ≴ ≵ ≶ ≷ ≸ ≹ ≺ ≻ ≼ ≽ ≾ ≿
    ⊀ ⊁ ⊂ ⊃ ⊄ ⊅ ⊆ ⊇ ⊈ ⊉ ⊊ ⊋ ⊌ ⊍ ⊎ ⊏
    ⊐ ⊑ ⊒ ⊓ ⊔ ⊕ ⊖ ⊗ ⊘ ⊙ ⊚ ⊛ ⊜ ⊝ ⊞ ⊟
    ⊠ ⊡ ⊢ ⊣ ⊤ ⊥ ⊦ ⊧ ⊨ ⊩ ⊪ ⊫ ⊬ ⊭ ⊮ ⊯
    ⊰ ⊱ ⊲ ⊳ ⊴ ⊵ ⊶ ⊷ ⊸ ⊹ ⊺ ⊻ ⊼ ⊽ ⊾ ⊿
    ⋀ ⋁ ⋂ ⋃ ⋄ ⋅ ⋆ ⋇ ⋈ ⋉ ⋊ ⋋ ⋌ ⋍ ⋎ ⋏
    ⋐ ⋑ ⋒ ⋓ ⋔ ⋕ ⋖ ⋗ ⋘ ⋙ ⋚ ⋛ ⋜ ⋝ ⋞ ⋟
    ⋠ ⋡ ⋢ ⋣ ⋤ ⋥ ⋦ ⋧ ⋨ ⋩ ⋪ ⋫ ⋬ ⋭ ⋮ ⋯
    ⋰ ⋱ ⋲ ⋳ ⋴ ⋵ ⋶ ⋷ ⋸ ⋹ ⋺ ⋻ ⋼ ⋽ ⋾ ⋿


    Roman numerals

    Ⅰ Ⅱ Ⅲ Ⅳ Ⅴ Ⅵ Ⅶ Ⅷ Ⅸ Ⅹ Ⅺ Ⅻ Ⅼ Ⅽ Ⅾ Ⅿ
    ⅰ ⅱ ⅲ ⅳ ⅴ ⅵ ⅶ ⅷ ⅸ ⅹ ⅺ ⅻ ⅼ ⅽ ⅾ ⅿ
    ↀ ↁ ↂ Ↄ ↄ ↅ ↆ ↇ ↈ ↉ ↊ ↋


    Currency symbols

    ₠ ₡ ₢ ₣ ₤ ₥ ₦ ₧ ₨ ₩ ₪ ₫ € ₭ ₮ ₯
    ₰ ₱ ₲ ₳ ₴ ₵ ₶ ₷ ₸ ₹ ₺ ₻ ₼ ₽ ₾ ₿ $$ ௹ ৲ ₹ ৳ 원 ㍐ 圓 元 円 ﷼ ៛ ₰ ¤ ₸ ₴ ¥ ¥ ₿ ฿ ¢ ₡ ¢ ₢


    Superscripts and subscripts to copy and paste

    ⁰ ⁱ ⁵ ⁶ ⁷ ⁸ ⁹ ⁺ ⁻ ⁼ ⁽ ⁾ ⁿ
    ₀ ₁ ₂ ₃ ₄ ₅ ₆ ₇ ₈ ₉ ₊ ₋ ₌ ₍ ₎
    ₐ ₑ ₒ ₓ ₔ ₕ ₖ ₗ ₘ ₙ ₚ ₛ ₜ


    Health and medical emojis to copy and paste

    • ☠ — skull and crossbones
    • ☡ — caution sign (curves ahead on-road)
    • ☢ — radioactive sign (trefoil)
    • ☣ — biohazard sign
    • ☤ — caduceus
    • ☮ — peace symbol
    • ☯ — yin yang
    • ♿ — wheelchair symbol
    • ⚕ — staff of Asclepius
    • ⚠ — warning sign
    • ⚡ — high voltage sign
    • ⛐ — sliding car
    • ⛨ — hospital
    • 💉 — syringe
    • 💊 — pill

    Sports emojis and Unicode symbols

    ⚽ — soccer
    ⚾ — baseball
    ⛷ — skier
    🎮 — video game
    🎳 — bowling
    🎽 — running shirt and sash
    🏀 — basketball
    🏃 — runner
    🏆 — trophy
    🏉 — rugby
    ♔ — white chess king
    ♕ — white chess queen
    ♖ — white chess rook
    ♗ — white chess bishop
    ♘ — white chess knight
    ♙ — white chess pawn
    ♚ — black chess king
    ♛ — black chess queen
    ♜ — black chess rook
    ♝ — black chess bishop
    ♞ — black chess knight
    ♟ — black chess pawn


    Playing cards Unicode symbols

    ♠ — black spade suit
    ♡ — white heart suit
    ♢ — white diamond suit
    ♣ — black club suit
    ♤ — white spade suit
    ♥ — black heart suit
    ♦ — black diamond suit
    ♧ — white club suit


    Musical and music note Unicode symbols

    🎵 — musical note
    🎶 — multiple musical notes
    🎸 — guitar
    🎻 — violin

    ♩ — quarter note
    ♪ — eighth note
    ♫ — beamed eighth notes
    ♬ — beamed sixteenth notes
    ♭ — music flat sign
    ♮ — music natural sign
    ♯ — music sharp sign
    𝄆 — left repeat sign
    𝄇 — right repeat sign
    𝄐 — fermata
    𝄜 — six-string fretboard (for tablature)
    𝄞 — G Clef
    𝄟 — G Clef ottava alta
    𝄠 — G Clef ottava bassa
    𝄡 — C Clef
    𝄢 — F Clef
    𝄣 — F clef ottava alta
    𝄤 — F clef ottava bassa
    𝄥 — drum clef-1
    𝄦 — symbol drum clef-2
    𝇐 — musical symbol gregorian C clef
    𝇑 — Gregorian F Clef
    𝄪 — double sharp
    𝄫 — double flat
    𝄴 — common time
    𝄻 — whole rest
    𝄼 — half rest
    𝄽 — quarter rest
    𝅗𝅥 — half note
    𝅘𝅥𝅯 — sixteenth note
    𝅘𝅥𝅰 — Thirty-second note
    𝅘𝅥𝅱 — Sixty-fourth note
    𝅘𝅥𝅲 — One hundred twenty-eighth note
    𝆒 — crescendo


    Shapes Unicode symbols to copy and paste

    • ■ — Black square
    • □ — White square
    • ▢ — White square with rounded corners
    • ▣ — White square containing small black square
    • ▤ — Square with horizontal fill
    • ▥ — Square with vertical fill
    • ▦ — Square with orthogonal crosshatch fill
    • ▧ — Square with upper left to lower right fill
    • ▨ — Square with upper right to lower left fill
    • ▩ — Square with diagonal crosshatch fill
    • ▪ — Black small square
    • ▫ — White small square
    • ▬ — Black rectangle
    • ▭ — White rectangle
    • ▮ — Black vertical rectangle
    • ▯ — White vertical rectangle
    • ▰ — Black parallelogram
    • ▱ — White parallelogram
    • ▲ — Black up-pointing triangle
    • △ — White up-pointing triangle
    • ▴ — Black up-pointing small triangle
    • ▵ — White up-pointing small triangle
    • ▶ — Black right-pointing triangle
    • ▷ — White right-pointing triangle
    • ▸ — Black right-pointing small triangle
    • ▹ — White right-pointing small triangle
    • ► — Black right-pointing pointer
    • ▻ — White right-pointing pointer
    • ▼ — Black down-pointing triangle
    • ▽ — White down-pointing triangle
    • ▾ — Black down-pointing small triangle
    • ▿ — White down-pointing small triangle
    • ◀ — Black left-pointing triangle
    • ◁ — White left-pointing triangle
    • ◂ — Black left-pointing small triangle
    • ◃ — White left-pointing small triangle
    • ◄ — Black left-pointing pointer
    • ◅ — White left-pointing pointer
    • ◆ — Black diamond
    • ◇ — White diamond
    • ◈ — White diamond containing small black diamond
    • ◉ — Fisheye
    • ◊ — Lozenge
    • ○ — White circle
    • ◌ — Dotted circle
    • ◍ — Circle with vertical fill
    • ◎ — Bullseye
    • ● — Black circle
    • ◐ — Circle with left half black
    • ◑ — Circle with right half black
    • ◒ — Circle with lower half black
    • ◓ — Circle with upper half black
    • ◔ — Circle with upper right quadrant black
    • ◕ — Circle with all but upper left quadrant black
    • ◖ — Left half circle black
    • ◗ — Right half black circle
    • ◘ — Inverse bullet
    • ◙ — Inverse white circle
    • ◚ — Upper half inverse white circle
    • ◛ — Lower half inverse white circle
    • ◜ — Upper left quadrant circular arc
    • ◝ — Upper right quadrant circular arc
    • ◞ — Lower right quadrant circular arc
    • ◟ — Lower left quadrant circular arc
    • ◠ — Upper half circle
    • ◡ — Lower half circle
    • ◢ — Black lower right triangle
    • ◣ — Black lower left triangle
    • ◤ — Black upper left triangle
    • ◥ — Black upper right triangle
    • ◦ — White bullet
    • ◧ — Square with left half black
    • ◨ — Square with right half black
    • ◩ — Square with upper left diagonal half black
    • ◪ — Square with lower right diagonal half black
    • ◫ — White square with vertical bisecting line
    • ◬ — White up-pointing triangle with dot
    • ◭ — Up-pointing triangle with left half black
    • ◮ — Up-pointing triangle with right half black
    • ◯ — Large circle
    • ◰ — White square with upper left quadrant
    • ◱ — White square with lower left quadrant
    • ◲ — White square with lower right quadrant
    • ◳ — White square with upper right quadrant
    • ◴ — White circle with upper left quadrant
    • ◵ — White circle with lower left quadrant
    • ◶ — White circle with lower right quadrant
    • ◷ — White circle with upper right quadrant
    • ◸ — Upper left triangle
    • ◹ — Upper right triangle
    • ◺ — Lower-left triangle
    • ◻ — White medium square
    • ◼ — Black medium square
    • ◽ — White medium small square
    • ◾ — Black medium small square
    • ◿ — Lower right triangle

    Numbers and fractions to copy and paste

    • One-half: ½
    • One-third: ⅓
    • Two-thirds: ⅔
    • One-quarter: ¼
    • Three-quarters: ¾
    • One-fifth: ⅕
    • Two-fifths: ⅖
    • Three-fifths: ⅗
    • Four-fifths: ⅘
    • One-sixth: ⅙
    • Five-sixths: ⅚
    • One-seventh: ⅐
    • One-eighth: ⅛
    • Three-eighths: ⅜
    • Five-eighths: ⅝
    • Seven-eighths: ⅞
    • One-ninth: ⅑
    • One-tenth: ⅒
    • Fraction numerator one: ⅟
    • Fraction slash: ⁄

    Greek Letters

    • Ͱ — Greek Capital Letter Heta
    • ͱ — Greek Small Letter Heta
    • Ͳ — Greek Capital Letter Archaic Sampi
    • ͳ — Greek Small Letter Archaic Sampi
    • ʹ — Greek Numeral Sign
    • ͵ — Greek Lower Numeral Sign
    • Ͷ — Greek Capital Letter Pamphylian Digamma
    • ͷ — Greek Small Letter Pamphylian Digamma
    • ͺ — Greek Ypogegrammeni
    • ͻ — Greek Small Reversed Lunate Sigma Symbol
    • ͼ — Greek Small Dotted Lunate Sigma Symbol
    • ͽ — Greek Small Reversed Dotted Lunate Sigma Symbol
    • ; — Greek Question Mark
    • Ϳ — Greek Capital Letter Yot
    • ΄ — Greek acute accent (tonos)
    • ΅ — Greek diaeresis with acute accent
    • Ά — Greek Capital Letter A with acute accent
    • · — Greek Ano Teleia
    • Έ — Greek Capital Letter Epsilon with acute accent
    • Ή — Greek Capital Letter Eta with acute accent
    • Ί — Greek Capital Letter Iota with acute accent
    • Ό — Greek Capital Letter Omicron with acute accent
    • Ύ — Greek Capital Letter Upsilon with acute accent
    • Ώ — Greek Capital Letter Omega with acute accent
    • ΐ — Greek Small Letter Iota with diaeresis and acute accent
    • Α — Greek Capital Letter Alpha
    • Β — Greek Capital Letter Beta
    • Γ — Greek Capital Letter Gamma
    • Δ — Greek Capital Letter Delta
    • Ε — Greek Capital Letter Epsilon
    • Ζ — Greek Capital Letter Zeta
    • Η — Greek Capital Letter Eta
    • Θ — Greek Capital Letter Theta
    • Ι — Greek Capital Letter Iota
    • Κ — Greek Capital Letter Kappa
    • Λ — Greek Capital Letter Lambda
    • Μ — Greek Capital Letter Mu
    • Ν — Greek Capital Letter Nu
    • Ξ — Greek Capital Letter Xi
    • Ο — Greek Capital Letter Omicron
    • Π — Greek Capital Letter Pi
    • Ρ — Greek Capital Letter Rho
    • Σ — Greek Capital Letter Sigma
    • Τ — Greek Capital Letter Tau
    • Υ — Greek Capital Letter Upsilon
    • Φ — Greek Capital Letter Phi
    • Χ — Greek Capital Letter Chi
    • Ψ — Greek Capital Letter Psi
    • Ω — Greek Capital Letter Omega
    • Ϊ — Greek Capital Letter Iota with diaeresis
    • Ϋ — Greek Capital Letter Upsilon with diaeresis
    • ά — Greek Small Letter Alpha with acute accent
    • έ — Greek Small Letter Epsilon with acute accent
    • ή — Greek Small Letter Eta with acute accent
    • ί — Greek Small Letter Iota with acute accent
    • ΰ — Greek Small Letter Upsilon with diaeresis and acute accent
    • α — Greek Small Letter Alpha
    • β — Greek Small Letter Beta
    • γ — Greek Small Letter Gamma
    • δ — Greek Small Letter Delta
    • ε — Greek Small Letter Epsilon
    • ζ — Greek Small Letter Zeta
    • η — Greek Small Letter Eta
    • θ — Greek Small Letter Theta
    • ι — Greek Small Letter Iota
    • κ — Greek Small Letter Kappa
    • λ — Greek Small Letter Lambda
    • μ — Greek Small Letter Mu
    • ν — Greek Small Letter Nu
    • ξ — Greek Small Letter Xi
    • ο — Greek Small Letter Omicron
    • π — Greek Small Letter Pi
    • ρ — Greek Small Letter Rho
    • ς — Greek Small Letter Final Sigma
    • σ — Greek Small Letter Sigma
    • τ — Greek Small Letter Tau
    • υ — Greek Small Letter Upsilon
    • φ — Greek Small Letter Phi
    • χ — Greek Small Letter Chi
    • ψ — Greek Small Letter Psi
    • ω — Greek Small Letter Omega
    • ϊ — Greek Small Letter Iota with diaeresis
    • ϋ — Greek Small Letter Upsilon with diaeresis
    • ό — Greek Small Letter Omicron with acute accent
    • ύ — Greek Small Letter Upsilon with acute accent
    • ώ — Greek Small Letter Omega with acute accent
    • Ϗ — Greek Capital Kai Symbol
    • ϐ — Greek Beta Symbol
    • ϑ — Greek Theta Symbol
    • ϒ — Greek Upsilon with hook Symbol
    • ϓ — Greek Upsilon with acute and hook Symbol
    • ϔ — Greek Upsilon with diaeresis and hook Symbol
    • ϕ — Greek Phi Symbol
    • ϖ — Greek Pi Symbol
    • ϗ — Greek Kai Symbol
    • Ϙ — Greek Letter Qoppa
    • ϙ — Greek Small Letter Qoppa
    • Ϛ — Greek Letter Stigma (letter)
    • ϛ — Greek Small Letter Stigma
    • Ϝ — Greek Letter Digamma
    • ϝ — Greek Small Letter Digamma
    • Ϟ — Greek Letter Koppa
    • ϟ — Greek Small Letter Koppa
    • Ϡ — Greek Letter Sampi
    • ϡ — Greek Small Letter Sampi
    • Ϣ — Coptic Capital Letter Shei
    • ϣ — Coptic Small Letter Shei
    • Ϥ — Coptic Capital Letter Fei
    • ϥ — Coptic Small Letter Fei
    • Ϧ — Coptic Capital Letter Khei
    • ϧ — Coptic Small Letter Khei
    • Ϩ — Coptic Capital Letter Hori
    • ϩ — Coptic Small Letter Hori
    • Ϫ — Coptic Capital Letter Gangia
    • ϫ — Coptic Small Letter Gangia
    • Ϭ — Coptic Capital Letter Shima
    • ϭ — Coptic Small Letter Shima
    • Ϯ — Coptic Capital Letter Dei
    • ϯ — Coptic Small Letter Dei
    • ϰ — Greek Kappa Symbol
    • ϱ — Greek Rho Symbol
    • ϲ — Greek Lunate Sigma Symbol
    • ϳ — Greek Letter Yot
    • ϴ — Greek Capital Theta Symbol
    • ϵ — Greek Lunate Epsilon Symbol
    • ϶ — Greek Reversed Lunate Epsilon Symbol
    • Ϸ — Greek Capital Sho
    • ϸ — Greek Small Letter Sho
    • Ϲ — Greek Capital Lunate Sigma Symbol
    • Ϻ — Greek Capital San
    • ϻ — Greek Small Letter San
    • ϼ — Greek Rho with stroke Symbol
    • Ͻ — Greek Capital Reversed Lunate Sigma Symbol
    • Ͼ — Greek Capital Dotted Lunate Sigma Symbol
    • Ͽ — Greek Capital Reversed Dotted Lunate Sigma Symbol

    More Greek letters to copy and paste

    ἀ ἁ ἂ ἃ ἄ ἅ ἆ ἇ Ἀ Ἁ Ἂ Ἃ Ἄ Ἅ Ἆ Ἇ
    ἐ ἑ ἒ ἓ ἔ ἕ Ἐ Ἑ Ἒ Ἓ Ἔ Ἕ
    ἠ ἡ ἢ ἣ ἤ ἥ ἦ ἧ Ἠ Ἡ Ἢ Ἣ Ἤ Ἥ Ἦ Ἧ
    ἰ ἱ ἲ ἳ ἴ ἵ ἶ ἷ Ἰ Ἱ Ἲ Ἳ Ἴ Ἵ Ἶ Ἷ
    ὀ ὁ ὂ ὃ ὄ ὅ Ὀ Ὁ Ὂ Ὃ Ὄ Ὅ
    ὐ ὑ ὒ ὓ ὔ ὕ ὖ ὗ Ὑ Ὓ Ὕ Ὗ
    ὠ ὡ ὢ ὣ ὤ ὥ ὦ ὧ Ὠ Ὡ Ὢ Ὣ Ὤ Ὥ Ὦ Ὧ
    ὰ ά ὲ έ ὴ ή ὶ ί ὸ ό ὺ ύ ὼ ώ
    ᾀ ᾁ ᾂ ᾃ ᾄ ᾅ ᾆ ᾇ ᾈ ᾉ ᾊ ᾋ ᾌ ᾍ ᾎ ᾏ
    ᾐ ᾑ ᾒ ᾓ ᾔ ᾕ ᾖ ᾗ ᾘ ᾙ ᾚ ᾛ ᾜ ᾝ ᾞ ᾟ
    ᾠ ᾡ ᾢ ᾣ ᾤ ᾥ ᾦ ᾧ ᾨ ᾩ ᾪ ᾫ ᾬ ᾭ ᾮ ᾯ
    ᾰ ᾱ ᾲ ᾳ ᾴ ᾶ ᾷ Ᾰ Ᾱ Ὰ Ά ᾼ ᾽ ι ᾿
    ῀ ῁ ῂ ῃ ῄ ῆ ῇ Ὲ Έ Ὴ Ή ῌ ῍ ῎ ῏
    ῐ ῑ ῒ ΐ ῖ ῗ Ῐ Ῑ Ὶ Ί ῝ ῞ ῟
    ῠ ῡ ῢ ΰ ῤ ῥ ῦ ῧ Ῠ Ῡ Ὺ Ύ Ῥ ῭ ΅ `
    ῲ ῳ ῴ ῶ ῷ Ὸ Ό Ὼ Ώ ῼ ´ ῾


    Latin letters

    • Ḃ — Latin capital letter B with dot above
    • ḃ — Latin small letter B with dot above
    • Ḋ — Latin capital letter D with dot above
    • ḋ — Latin small letter D with dot above
    • Ḟ — Latin capital letter F with dot above
    • ḟ — Latin small letter F with dot above
    • Ṁ — Latin capital letter M with dot above
    • ṁ — Latin small letter M with dot above
    • Ṗ — Latin capital letter P with dot above
    • ṗ — Latin small letter P with dot above
    • Ṡ — Latin capital letter S with dot above
    • ṡ — Latin small letter S with dot above
    • Ṫ — Latin capital letter T with dot above
    • ṫ — Latin small letter T with dot above
    • Ẁ — Latin capital letter W with grave
    • ẁ — Latin small letter W with grave
    • Ẃ — Latin capital letter W with acute
    • ẃ — Latin small letter W with acute
    • Ẅ — Latin capital letter W with diaeresis
    • ẅ — Latin small letter W with diaeresis
    • ẛ — Latin small letter long S with dot above
    • Ỳ — Latin capital letter Y with grave

    Wrapup

    The above categories of emojis and Unicode symbols are ones that I feel are amongst the most useful.

    Wikipedia has amazing lists of emojis as well as a full list of the Unicode symbols.

    ⚡⚡Be aware those two webpages can take some time to load because they’re so big.⚡⚡

    Thanks for reading and using this list!


    J.J. Pryor

    Head over here for more of my shenanigans.

  • 129 Tongue Twisters to Practice and Perfect English Pronunciation

    “Twist a tongue, and tongue a twist how many twists can a tongue twister twist around the twisting tongue.”― Jazz Feylynn

    Who doesn’t remember having a favorite tongue twister as a kid? For me, it was the “how much wood could a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood.”

    Even to this day I can say it at a breakneck pace, much to the amusement of anyone around me at the time.

    But one thing I never realized as a child was the importance of tongue twisters. I thought they were just a fun little trick meant to kill some time after a bunch of practice — kind of like a magic trick.

    But it turns out people all around the world practice tongue twisters in English, even as adults! Why? Because it’s a great tool for learning to pronounce and enunciate difficult sounds in the English language!

    And what better way to learn a language than when it’s something fun?

    This article explores a bit of the history of tongue twisters, how to make your own, and of course, a list of 129 pre-existing tongue twisters at the end.

    Let’s jump in!

    What is a tongue twister?

    A tongue twister is a sentence or phrase that’s difficult to speak out loud, usually due to several alliterations and similar-sounding consonants.

    For example:

    • Peter Piper picked a pale of peppers.
    • How much wood could a woodchuck chuck?
    • She sells seashells by the seashore.

    And while some tongue twisters are longer, the short ones are often meant to be repeated multiple times in a row.

    • Toy boat
    • Top cop
    • Edward edited it

    They also usually consist of a combination of alliteration and similar-sounding consonants.

    Alliteration is the repetition of initial sounds in a series of words.

    Think of sentences like:

    • Amy ate apples
    • Greg gorged gleefully
    • Zack’s zany zoo

    Whereas similar-sounding consonants are more in the domain of how we sound out a word. The easiest way to recognize a consonant is that they’re the opposite of a vowel!

    Examples of constants:

    • Using your lips to pronounce “p” and “b”
    • Using the front of your tongue to pronounce “t” and “d”
    • Using the back of the tongue to pronounce “k” and “g”
    • Using your throat to pronounce “h”
    • Using forced air to pronounce “f” and “v” and “s”
    • Using your nasal cavity to pronounce “m” and “n” (Try plugging your nose and humming those letters!)

    Combine the two literary devices, throw in some humor and/or a story, and you have yourself a brand new tongue twister!

    Fun facts about tongue twisters

    What’s the hardest tongue twister in the world?

    Well, back in 1974, the Guinness World Records listed the most difficult tongue twister in the English language for the last time. Their final winner?

    The sixth sick sheikh’s sixth sheep’s sick.

    But according to the author and columnist William Poundstone, after testing numerous English speakers, he claimed the most difficult tongue twister in the world is:

    The seething sea ceaseth and thus the seething sea sufficeth us.

    Did you know the famous “She sells seashells” tongue twister was made into a song?

    While the original phrase was created as a dictation exercise in 1850, the twister was turned into lyrics in a famous song in 19908, by British songwriter Terry Sullivan and musician Harry Gifford.

    There’s also a National Tongue Twister Day, celebrated annually on November 8! People can be pretty serious about seemingly silly things, can’t they?

    Did you want to create your own tongue twisters? It’s not too hard. Plus, it’s fun! That’s why I created a simple 7-step process to make your own.

    129 Tongue Twisters in Alphabetical Order

    Here’s a huge list of tongue twisters to play with, teach with, or just practice for yourself! I listed them in alphabetic order for ease of reading. Also, if one of the tongue twisters is short, like one to three words, the idea is to repeat them multiple times over and over.

    1. A big black bear sat on a big black rug.
    2. A flea and a fly flew up in a flue.
    3. A happy hippo hopped and hiccupped.
    4. A pessimistic pest exists amidst us.
    5. A proper copper coffee pot.
    6. A really leery Larry rolls readily to the road.
    7. A shapeless sash sags slowly.
    8. A skunk sat on a stump and thunk the stump stunk, but the stump thunk the skunk stunk.
    9. A snake sneaks to seek a snack.
    10. A synonym for cinnamon is a cinnamon synonym.
    11. An ape hates grape cakes.
    12. Any noise annoys an oyster but a noisy noise annoys an oyster more.
    13. Bake big batches of bitter brown bread.
    14. Betty Botter bought some butter but, said she, the butter’s bitter. If I put it in my batter, it will make my batter bitter. But a bit of better butter will make my bitter batter better. So she So ‘t was better Betty Botter bought some better butter.put it in her bitter batter, made her bitter batter better.
    15. Betty’s big bunny bobbled by the blueberry bush.
    16. Birdie birdie in the sky laid a turdie in my eye. If cows could fly I’d have a cow pie in my eye.
    17. Black back bat.
    18. Blue bluebird.
    19. Brisk brave brigadiers brandished broad bright blades, blunderbusses, and bludgeons — balancing them badly.
    20. Can you can a can as a canner can can a can?
    21. Can you can a canned can into an un-canned can like a canner can can a canned can into an un-canned can?
    22. Cooks cook cupcakes quickly.
    23. Daddy draws doors.
    24. Double bubble gum, bubbles double.
    25. Each Easter Eddie eats eighty Easter eggs.
    26. Eddie edited it.
    27. Eleven benevolent elephants.
    28. Elizabeth has eleven elves in her elm tree.
    29. Flash message.
    30. Four fine fresh fish for you.
    31. Four furious friends fought for the phone.
    32. Fred fed Ted bread and Ted fed Fred bread.
    33. Fresh French fried fly fritters.
    34. Fresh fried fish.
    35. Friendly fleas and fireflies.
    36. Fuzzy Wuzzy was a bear. Fuzzy Wuzzy had no hair. Fuzzy Wuzzy wasn’t fuzzy, was he?
    37. Give papa a proper cup of coffee in a copper coffee cup.
    38. Gobbling gargoyles gobbled gobbling goblins.
    39. Good blood, bad blood.
    40. Green glass globes glow greenly.
    41. He threw three free throws.
    42. How can a clam cram in a clean cream can?
    43. How many yaks could a yak pack, pack if a yak pack could pack yaks?
    44. How much ground would a groundhog hog, if a groundhog could hog ground? A groundhog would hog all the ground he could hog, if a groundhog could hog ground.
    45. How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood? He would chuck, he would, as much as he could, and chuck as much wood as a woodchuck would if a woodchuck could chuck wood.
    46. I have got a date at a quarter to eight; I’ll see you at the gate, so don’t be late.
    47. I looked right at Larry’s rally and left in a hurry.
    48. I saw a kitten eating chicken in the kitchen.
    49. I saw Susie sitting in a shoeshine shop.
    50. I scream, you scream, we all scream for ice cream.
    51. I slit the sheet, the sheet I slit, and on the slitted sheet I sit.
    52. I thought a thought. But the thought I thought Wasn’t the thought I thought I thought. If the thought I thought I thought, Had been the thought I thought, I wouldn’t have thought I thought.
    53. I thought I thought of thinking of thanking you.
    54. I wish to wash my Irish wristwatch.
    55. If a dog chews shoes, whose shoes does he choose?
    56. If practice makes perfect and perfect needs practice, I’m perfectly practiced and practically perfect.
    57. If you must cross a course cross cow across a crowded cow crossing, cross the cross coarse cow across the crowded cow crossing carefully.
    58. If you notice this notice, you will notice that this notice is not worth noticing.
    59. Imagine an imaginary menagerie manager managing an imaginary menagerie.
    60. Lesser leather never weathered wetter weather better.
    61. Linda-Lou Lambert loves lemon lollipop lipgloss.
    62. Little Lillian lets lazy lizards lie along the lily pads.
    63. Lucky rabbits like to cause a ruckus.
    64. Many an anemone sees an enemy anemone.
    65. Near an ear, a nearer ear, a nearly eerie ear.
    66. Nine nice night nurses nursing nicely.
    67. No need to light a night-light on a light night like tonight.
    68. Of all the vids I’ve ever viewed, I’ve never viewed a vid as valued as Alex’s valuable vid.
    69. One-one was a race horse. Two-two was one too. One-one won one race. Two-two won one too.
    70. Pad kid poured curd pulled cod.
    71. Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. A peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked. If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, where’s the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked?
    72. Picky people pick Peter Pan Peanut-Butter, ’tis the peanut-butter picky people pick.
    73. Pre-shrunk silk shirts.
    74. Really leery, rarely Larry.
    75. Red Buick, blue Buick.
    76. Red lorry, yellow lorry.
    77. Roberta ran rings around the Roman ruins.
    78. Rolling red wagons.
    79. Rory the warrior and Roger the worrier were reared wrongly in a rural brewery.
    80. Rory’s lawn rake rarely rakes really right.
    81. Round and round the rugged rocks the ragged rascal ran.
    82. Rubber baby buggy bumpers.
    83. Scissors sizzle, thistles sizzle.
    84. Selfish shellfish.
    85. Send toast to ten tense stout saints’ ten tall tents.
    86. She sees cheese.
    87. She sells seashells on the seashore. The shells she sells are seashells, I’m sure. And if she sells seashells on the seashore, Then I’m sure she sells seashore shells.
    88. She stood on the balcony, inexplicably mimicking him hiccuping, and amicably welcoming him in.
    89. Sheena leads, Sheila needs.
    90. Six Czech cricket critics.
    91. Six sick hicks nick six slick bricks with picks and sticks.
    92. Six sleek swans swam swiftly southwards.
    93. Six sticky skeletons.
    94. Smelly shoes and socks shock sisters.
    95. Snap crackle pop.
    96. So, this is the sushi chef.
    97. Something in a thirty-acre thermal thicket of thorns and thistles thumped and thundered threatening the 3D thoughts of Matthew the thug — although, theatrically, it was only the thirteen-thousand thistles and thorns through the underneath of his thigh that the thirty-year-old thug thought of that morning.
    98. Specific Pacific.
    99. Stupid superstition.
    100. Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious
    101. “Surely Sylvia swims!” shrieked Sammy surprised. “Someone should show Sylvia some strokes so she shall not sink.”
    102. Susie works in a shoeshine shop. Where she shines she sits, and where she sits she shines.
    103. The 33 thieves thought that they thrilled the throne throughout Thursday.
    104. The big bug bit the little beetle.
    105. The great Greek grape growers grow great Greek grapes.
    106. The sixth sick sheik’s sixth sheep’s sick.
    107. The thirty-three thieves thought that they thrilled the throne throughout Thursday.
    108. Thin sticks, thick bricks.
    109. Thirty-three thirsty, thundering thoroughbreds thumped Mr. Thurber on Thursday.
    110. Thirty-three thousand feathers on a thrushes throat.
    111. Three free throws.
    112. Tie twine to three tree twigs.
    113. Tom threw Tim three thumbtacks.
    114. Top chopstick shops stock top chopsticks.
    115. Toy boat. Toy boat. Toy boat.
    116. Truly rural.
    117. Twelve twins twirled twelve twigs.
    118. Two tried and true tridents.
    119. Wayne went to wales to watch walruses.
    120. We surely shall see the sun shine soon.
    121. Which witch is which?
    122. Which wrist watches are Swiss wrist watches?
    123. Willie’s really weary.
    124. Willy’s real rear wheel.
    125. Yellow butter, purple jelly, red jam, black bread. Spread it thick, say it quick! Yellow butter, purple jelly, red jam, black bread. Spread it thicker, say it quicker! Yellow butter, purple jelly, red jam, black bread.
    126. You know New York, you need New York, you know you need unique New York.
    127. Green Greg greedily grifts a grail of green grapes to greet his grandkids.
    128. Groggy Greg graciously gripes at the groovy groom to grease his grumpiness.
    129. Greedy Greg gracefully grabs the grocery gristle to grip his gratin.

    J.J. Pryor

    Head over here for more of my shenanigans.

  • How to Make Your Own Tongue Twisters

    Twitch, twiddle, and twirl talented tangled tongues!

    While it’s not a common thing to include in writing, adding a tongue twister can be a great way to make your passage stand out from others. Plus, it’s fun to do!

    They’re also not the easiest literary device to use or create from.

    Then again, knowing writers as I do probably means they’d want to include more of them if it’s challenging, not less!

    There are also a thousand ways under the sun to come up with a fun tongue twister to use in your writing. But like many things in life, the more you practice them, the better you get.

    So, here’s one method I use whenever I want to twist a few tongues and frustrate readers. As it’s easier to focus on alliteration in my opinion, that’s the focus of this method.

    Let’s jump in!

    Note: You can stop this process at any point after #3 and count it as a tongue twister! They don’t have to inherently be long, many tongue twisters can be just one, two, or three words that then get repeated over and over to produce the twist.

    How to create a tongue twister in 7 easy steps

    Step #1. Grab your tools

    This exercise is probably easiest to do if you have access to a computer with internet. You can also do it on your phone but the experience might be a bit clunkier, as this method involves flipping between websites a bunch.

    Open up a thesaurus and a rhyme tool tab on your browser. For instance, I often use Power Thesaurus and Rhyme Zone for quirky exercises like this. Also, for getting ideas for words to include that start with your preferred letter, I use a website called The Free Dictionary.

    This last tool is probably all you need, depending on how complex you want to make your tongue twister.

    Step #2. Start with a noun

    Perhaps you have a specific idea in mind for your tongue twister. If that’s the case, great! Start with the noun of your idea and go from there.

    If you don’t, then I like to think of a one-letter or two-letter consonant blend like in this list.

    For example, I’m going to use the name Greg, since it’s a common name and “gr” is a fun two-letter consonant with many examples of words.

    Step #3. Add an adjective

    We’re going to take your first noun, then add an adjective to it that uses alliteration (the same sounding beginning letters).

    Examples:

    • Green Greg
    • Groggy Greg
    • Greedy Greg

    Step #4. Add a verb

    Now it’s time to add a verb after the described noun. What is it that your noun is doing? Let’s have some fun and make sure it follows the same flow and style!

    Examples:

    • Green Greg grifts
    • Groggy Greg gripes
    • Greedy Greg grabs

    Step #5. Add an adverb

    At this point, we can add an adverb to describe the verb we just placed in the tongue twister.

    Examples:

    • Green Greg greedily grifts
    • Groggy Greg graciously gripes
    • Greedy Greg gracefully grabs

    Step #6. Add another noun

    This is all leading into the what of the tongue twister, which comes before the why and conclusion. At this point, we need to answer what Greg is doing, before answering why and finishing it off.

    Examples:

    • Green Greg greedily grifts a grail of green grapes
    • Groggy Greg graciously gripes at the groovy groom
    • Greedy Greg gracefully grabs the grocery gristle

    Step #7. Add a reason

    Finally, we could try to add a why to the tongue twister and answer it, all within the same structure and style! This is starting to get more advanced by this point, which usually means more time searching for the perfect words to include, so feel free to stop already!

    So, why is Greg doing what he’s doing? Let’s try to answer with a combination of adjectives, adverbs, nouns and verbs and see what we come up with.

    Examples:

    • Green Greg greedily grifts a grail of green grapes to greet his grandkids.
    • Groggy Greg graciously gripes at the groovy groom to grease his grumpiness.
    • Greedy Greg gracefully grabs the grocery gristle to grip his gratin.

    Takeaway

    That’s it! Hopefully, you were able to create an alliterative tongue twister to use in your own writing. And if you had too much trouble with it, don’t worry, practice does make perfect with these types of things.

    I’d love to hear your own tongue twisters in the comments or any questions you might have if you tried out my method too. Thanks for reading!


    J.J. Pryor

    Head over here for more of my shenanigans.