• Plutchik’s Wheel of Emotions: A Handy Little Writing Tool

    “Change happens in the boiler room of our emotions. So find out how to light their fires.” — Jeff Dewar

    Headlines are the beginning of the reading journey.

    No matter how you cut it, your title determines how many people read your subtitle. Your subtitle determines how many people glance at your header image. Your header image reinforces the ideas of the headlines.

    Then someone clicks, or more likely, moves on to another piece.

    These three things combined paint a five-second picture in your readers’ mind of whether or not your work is worth their next five minutes of free time.

    And damn it if our free time isn’t precious these days.

    Or, more importantly, your readers’ free time.

    Let’s find the best of both worlds and improve our headlines’ effectiveness by adding emotion and feeling.

    If your writing is truly great, it needs a title to match.


    Plutchik’s Wheel of Emotions

    American psychologist Dr. Robert Plutchik spent decades of his life studying emotions in people. He ended up being famous for his below contribution to the world — aptly called Plutchik’s Wheel of Emotions.

    The Wheel of Emotions by Dr. Robert Plutchik.
    Wheel of Emotions. Credit: Public Domain Wikimedia Commons

    He identified eight primary feelings that we all subscribe to at a basic level:

    1. Fear/terror
    2. Anger/rage
    3. Joy/ecstasy
    4. Sadness/grief
    5. Acceptance/trust
    6. Disgust/hate
    7. Anticipation
    8. Surprise

    Beyond that, he identified several layers of lower degrees.

    Annoyance rather than rage. Apprehension versus sheer terror.

    People mostly use it today as a form of self-reflection and in becoming more mindful. I hope he wouldn’t fully mind if I want to use it for another purpose — writing headlines!

    Make People Feel to Reel Them In

    I believe the same concept can apply to constructing our titles for whatever kind of story we write.

    You’ve spent hours, if not days, crafting your recent piece. Wouldn’t you hate it if the first sentence blocked 90% of people from reading your work?

    I would. And I certainly do.

    So why not spend a little extra time perfecting the gateway to our stories.

    Adding emotional feeling is certainly a great way to accomplish this. I’m sure you’ve heard of power words, trigger words, and every other kind of title “hack” you could think of.

    There are even dozens of headline analyzers that claim to help you find the right mix for your titles. Some editors swear by them.

    I personally find them lacking, even if they do help nudge me in the right direction. That’s why I started using my own system to improve my titles and increase the click-through rate of readers.

    I call it the Feel to Reel strategy.

    If you want to reel in a reader and entice them to spend their precious time, make them feel something first.

    Feel to Reel 3-Step Headline Writing Strategy

    This process shouldn’t be too hard to follow. Once you get used to it, it will only take an extra minute or two of your article creation time.

    Step 1: Write your article and edit it

    It doesn’t matter how great your headline is; you need to back it up with a great body of writing after.

    Write your story, edit it to perfection, and proceed to the next step.

    Step 2: Choose your feeling

    Of the eight identified primary feelings, which ones are most suited to the article you wrote?

    Feel to Reel by JJ Pryor.
    Feel to Reel, Image created by J.J. Pryor

    Feel free to pick more than one emotion, but try to keep it to two at most.

    Step 3: Choose your words

    Now that you’ve chosen one or two feelings that best suit your story, look through the below list and try to find one word from each emotion that best fits into your headline.

    Don’t forget to play around with the structure of the word, you amazing writer, you.

    Joy:

    Happiness, delight, pleasure, ecstatic, bliss, rapture, enjoyment, cheerful, elated, exhilaration, satisfied, gleeful, glad, joyful, cheerful, gratified, exultation, amusing, fun, merry, euphoric, excitement, jovial, lively, rejoice, triumph, zestful, exuberance, paradise, rejoice, glory, playful, enthusiasm, exaltation, heaven, light-hearted, joyous, jubilant, overjoyed, pleasant, thrilled, blessed.

    Examples with over 5,000 claps:

    • “The Pleasure of Clapping Back”
    • “Can You Enjoy Work Too Much?
    • “Ten Choices I’m Glad I Made and Ten I Wish I Hadn’t”

    Acceptance:

    Acknowledge, affirm, approve, favor, hold, recognize, trust, agree, respect,
    tolerate, absolute, authentic, authority, bold, brilliant, captivate, completely, conclusive, detailed, genuine, guaranteed, honest, legitimate, memorable, professional, promise, proven, reliable, respected, tested, safe, secure, healthy, smart, unmistakable, clear.

    Examples with over 5,000 claps:

    • “How to Recognize Real Love”
    • “Do Your Job and Trust the Process”
    • “You Can Never Demand Respect

    Surprise:

    Shock, astonish, amazing, startle, astound, dumbfound, stagger, stun, wonder, surprising, astonishing, flabbergast, stupefy, confound, daze, jolt, bewilder, shake, floored, blow away, revelation, rock the boat, upset, ambush, awe, dazzle, disconcert, grab, discover, nab, capture, seize.

    Examples with over 5,000 claps:

    • “7 Reasons Why You Will Never Do Anything Amazing With Your Life”
    • “Ever Wonder Why the Most Popular Apps Are Starting to Look the Same?”
    • “The Astonishing Difference a Smile Can Make”

    Anticipation:

    Expect, predict, foresee, forecast, await, foretell, forebode, hope, forestall, promise, envisage, call, envision, counter, wait, foreshadow, prophesy, accelerate, advance, goal, prevent, announce, astonishing, rapid, hurry, rush, soon, ignite, sprint, streamline, crave, inspire, teaser, launch, learn, expect, urgent, now, warning, mystery, wishful, outlook, wonder, yearn, future, plan, desire, covet, yearn, forbidden.

    Examples with over 5,000 claps:

    • “5 Things to Expect When Dating a Mature Woman”
    • “Can One Word Predict the End of a Relationship?
    • “The Mystery of Color”

    Anger:

    Despise, aggravate, disturb, agony, annoy, dread, enrage, salty, revenge, fight, eliminate, fired, savage, assault, scream, atrocious, frantic, force, shatter, attack, frustrate, snarky, furious, severe, beat down, grumpy, hassle, hate, tantrum, terrible, break, bitter, dispute, panic, provoke, deadly, offend, conflict, toxic, touchy, insult, unnerve, malicious, cruel, curse, upset, violate, provoke, uproar, corrupt, insane, resent, wrathful, dispute, disgust, scam, steal.

    Examples with over 5,000 claps:

    • “Why You Make Terrible Life Choices”
    • “Uber’s Valuation is Insane
    • “The Truth About Toxic Workers in The Workplace”

    Fear:

    Danger, embarrassing, miss, panic, mistake, threat, abuse, cowardly, distressed, inferior, avoid, dreaded, unexpected, suspect, shun, worry, angst, anxiety, concern, despair, dismay, doubt, horror, scared, terror, uneasy, highjacking, abusive, forbidden, freaky, scam, alarming, scary, frightening, ghostly, overwhelm, scathing, self-destructive, grim, shady, gruesome, shocking, beware, hair-raising, brutal, harmful, soul-crushing, spine-chilling, hellish, hideous, crisis, cutthroat, alert, horrifying, lethal, daunting, sinister, poisonous, unspeakable, reckless, risky, vulnerable, sabotage, wicked, fatal, unsettling, painful, ominous.

    Examples with over 5,000 claps:

    • “The Danger in Fake Positivity”
    • “I Don’t Miss You Like I Used to”
    • Overwhelming Brutal Truths You Must Accept”

    Hate:

    Hatred, dislike, loathe, detest, abhor, despise, loathing, animosity, hostile, avert, disgust, antagonize, malice, scorn, resent, revenge, shun, awful, sickening, putrid, creepy, worthless, cringe, taboo, criminal, vile, disgraceful, vulgar, grimy, evil, slimy, foul, horrible, messy, appalling, junk, scandal, nasty, unattractive, nauseating, loathsome, obscene, wretched, obnoxious, humiliating, horrid, offensive, corrupt, shameful, rotten, dreadful, revolting.

    Examples with over 5,000 claps:

    • “The Absolute Best Way to Get Revenge
    • “Are You Aware of the Nasty Habits Killing Your Dreams?
    • “‘Find Your Passion’ is Awful Advice”

    Sadness:

    Shameful, gloomy, agonizing, sluggish, grief, heartbreaking, cowardly, hurtful, tearful, inferior, crushing, dark, lacking, dead, tormenting, touching, deceptive, tragic, loser, loss, troubled, defeated, lowest, ugliest, miserable, misfortunate, unsuccessful, missed, awful, disappointing, disastrous, poor, dreadful, poverty, weep, failure, wrong, depressing, pathetic, upsetting, unsettling, unhappy, sorrowful, dejected, somber, woeful, despondent, melancholy, inconsolable, depressed, pity, joyless, dejected.

    Examples with over 5,000 claps:

    • “Why Listening to Sad Music Makes You Feel Better”
    • Ugly Truths About Working From Home”
    • “Why Highly Intelligent People Are Miserable

    Bonus Category: Curiosity

    Adding a bit of intrigue is also a huge factor for triggering people to click.

    Here are a few to use for that added feeling of wonder:

    Learn, harness, unveil, secret, uncover, discover, join, confidential, hidden, insider, private, secluded, exclusive, distinct, unique, peculiar, strange, bizarre, unusual, weird, extraordinary, odd, unconventional, eccentric, abnormal, unexpected, remarkable, mysterious, exotic, rare, puzzling, freakish.

    Examples with over 5,000 claps:

    • “20 Things Most People Learn Too Late in Life”
    • “The Secret to Apple’s New Fonts”
    • “How to Discover Your Genius”
    • “Welcome to the Club No One Wants to Join
    • “The Hidden Costs of Touchscreens”
    • “How Technology is Hijacking Your Mind — from a Former Insider
    • “When Did the American Dream Become Flying Private to Dubai?
    • “The Origins of America’s Unique and Spectacular Cruelty”
    • “The Strange Law of Love”
    • “11 Unusual Tips for How to Wake Up Early”
    • “22 Incredibly Weird but Profound Life Lessons”
    • “How to Make Someone Feel Extraordinary by Saying Very Little”
    • “Self-help for Nightowls and Odd Balls”
    • Unexpected Signs Your Life is Changing for the Better”

    J.J. Pryor

    Head over here for more of my written shenanigans.

  • The 27 Emotions List: What Recent Science Says We Feel

    “I don’t want to be at the mercy of my emotions. I want to use them, to enjoy them, and to dominate them.”― Oscar Wilde, The Picture of Dorian Gray

    When talking about social media, politics, and $30 Starbucks coffees, we often feel a familiar combination of disgust and anger. But a study in 2017 came to the conclusion we have far more emotions despite what our modern internet age tells us.

    In 2017, two researchers from the University of California, Berkely, Alan S. Cowen, and Dacher Keltner, PhD, came to the conclusion there are 27 distinct classifications of emotions in humans.

    In fact, their study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences journal was the largest collection of emotional data to date!

    They used new forms of statistical analysis to analyze 324,066 individual judgments from over 800 people using Amazon Mechanical Turk.

    Cowen and Keltner initially collected 2,185 five-second videos with the goal of eliciting as many emotions as possible. The videos included births, babies, weddings, death, cute animals, art, explosions, sexual acts, and everything in between.

    They showed these videos to the study participants and had them report their emotional responses in the form of free form, ratings, or on a scale of one to nine for other dimensions such as positive versus negative experience, etc.

    Their results?

    They found 27 statistically provable emotions felt by the individuals in their study.

    The 27 Emotions List

    So, what are the 27 emotions Cowen and Keltner identified?

    Admiration, adoration, aesthetic appreciation, amusement, anger, anxiety, awe, awkwardness, boredom, calmness, confusion, craving, disgust, empathic pain, entrancement, excitement, fear, horror, interest, joy, nostalgia, relief, romance, sadness, satisfaction, sexual desire, and surprise.

    Here’s the list in alphabetical order as well as links to their definitions.

    Emotions aren’t on an island

    We should note the study might not be perfect and there could be far more or fewer emotions experienced in real life. Additionally, the collection of data was based on self-reported answers.

    As the authors noted, “self-report measures only partially capture; self-report is not a direct readout of experience.”

    But it’s cool to think there are some universally identifiable emotions, potentially across cultural, geographical, and linguistic barriers, too (although this wasn’t assessed in the study).

    The 27 emotions identified also aren’t supposed to be thought of as sitting on a lonely island. Keltner said:

    “There are smooth gradients of emotion between, say, awe and peacefulness, horror and sadness, and amusement and adoration.”

    Life, after all, isn’t composed of simple 0s and 1s, even if many of like to think of such binary terms. The other author, Cowen, mentioned:

    “We don’t get finite clusters of emotions in the map because everything is interconnected. Emotional experiences are so much richer and more nuanced than previously thought.”

    If you’re interested in knowing more about the study or seeing how the videos were mapped out by participants in terms of emotions, the authors created an interactive map (viewer discretion advised).

    What other theories of emotion are there?

    Psychology is often not an exact science, and whenever this occurs you’ll find multiple theories explaining how our internals work and function. Here are a few of the main alternate theories on how many emotions people actually have.

    Charles Darwin’s theory of emotions

    After publishing On the Origin of Species and The Descent of Man, Charles Darwin released his third major piece on evolutionary psychology called The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. In this book, Darwin explores the universality of emotions among animals and humankind, and discusses 34 separate emotions:

    1. Anxiety
    2. Devotion
    3. High spirits
    4. Low spirits
    5. Patience
    6. Affirmation
    7. Negation
    8. Surprise
    9. Joy
    10. Love
    11. Hatred
    12. Disdain
    13. Contempt
    14. Tender feelings
    15. Suffering
    16. Weeping
    17. Grief
    18. Blushing
    19. Reflection
    20. Mediation
    21. Determination
    22. Dejection
    23. Despair
    24. Anger
    25. Disgust
    26. Guilt
    27. Pride
    28. Helplessness
    29. Ill-temper
    30. Sulkiness
    31. Fear
    32. Self-attention
    33. Shyness
    34. Modesty

    His conclusion showed he believed there were six basic shared emotional states: happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise and disgust.

    Robert Plutchik’s theory of emotions

    The prolific psychologist Robert Plutchik had a focus on emotional responses and how they might influence people. As part of his research, he came to the conclusion that people possess eight primary emotions:

    1. Fear
    2. Anger
    3. Joy
    4. Sadness
    5. Acceptance
    6. Disgust
    7. Anticipation
    8. Surprise

    If you’ve ever studied writing before, you’re probably familiar with Plutchik’s Wheel of Emotions, which aims to illustrate his theory in a color wheel. It’s a good tool for authors looking to explore their characters’ different emotions and feelings when stuck for words.

    Discrete emotion theory

    This theory has been in development since Darwin’s work mentioned above. It’s along the same idea — that humans universally experience a set of distinct emotions. In the latest iteration of the theory, psychologist Carroll Izard proposes there are 12 discrete emotions shared by humans:

    1. Interest
    2. Joy
    3. Surprise
    4. Sadness
    5. Anger
    6. Disgust
    7. Contempt
    8. Self-hostility
    9. Fear
    10. Shame
    11. Shyness
    12. Guilt

    Book two of Aristotle’s theory

    In book two of Aristotle’s classic, Rhetoric, he outlines a series of 14 emotions he thinks are universal. But note they might be considered somewhat dated as this was released around 2400 years ago.

    Aristotle’s list of emotions included:

    • Anger
    • Calm
    • Friendship
    • Enmity
    • Fear
    • Confidence
    • Shame
    • Shamelessness
    • Kindness
    • Unkindness
    • Pity
    • Indignation
    • Envy
    • Emulation

    Takeaway

    According to researchers, we humble humans experience over 6,000 thoughts per day. At least 90% of our waking hours also constitute at least one ongoing emotion. And this jumps between 3 to 30 separate emotions depending on different studies.

    In short, while different researchers posit we might have 6, 8, or even 27 distinct emotions throughout our lives, the absolute truth is, we are emotional beasts!

    We experience anger while feeling sad when a loved one gets taken away too early. We feel joy and anticipation when we make progress on personal projects. Our emotions are truly a wheel of craziness that scientists might never nail down to their exact parts.

    But that’s okay, because at the end of the day, knowing how to control and take advantage of your own emotions is probably more important than knowing the distinct number of them available to the human species.

    And for that, your best bet is probably learning about the different forms of meditation — something scientifically proven to help us regulate our mood and bring on an increased level of relaxation and contentment.


    J.J. Pryor

    Head over here for more of my written shenanigans.

  • 😎 Huge List of Unicode and Emoji Symbols to Copy and Paste 😀

    Emoji symbols to copy and paste

     

    Here is a massive list (categorized of course) of emojis, symbols, Unicode characters, and pretty much everything else you would need to spruce up your essays, articles, and projects!

    Just copy and paste any of these symbols to use them. You can also try double-clicking a symbol to save time highlighting it.

    These symbols are almost all cross-platform, so they should work on every device and social media platform.

    If you’re looking to make a fancy name for your profile or webpage, you can also try searching for a Unicode text converter tool. Here is an example tool for that (but Google has many more).

    You can also try using CTRL + F to find a character or category in the below symbols (ex. search for ‘Face’ to find face emojis).

    👍👍👍Enjoy your Emoji-ing below. Good luck and have fun! 👍👍👍

    Emojis, Unicode, Subscripts, Superscripts, and math symbols to copy and paste

    Most common Unicode characters:

    These are the most used Unicode symbols!

    • Up arrow: ↑ ↟ ↥ ⇈ ⇑ ⇞ ⇡ ⇧ ⇪ ⇫ ⇬ ⇭ ⇮ ⇯
    • Down arrow: ↓ ↡ ↧ ⇊ ⇓ ⇟ ⇣ ⇩
    • Right arrow: → ↝ ↪ ↬ ↷ ↻ ↠ ↦ ⇉ ⇏ ⇒ ⇛ ⇝ ⇢ ⇨ ⇰ ⇴ ⇸ ⇻ ⇾
    • Left arrow: ← ↚ ↜ ↞ ↢ ↤ ↩ ↫ ↶ ↺ ↻ ⇇ ⇍ ⇐ ⇚ ⇜ ⇠ ⇤ ⇦ ⇷ ⇺ ⇽
    • Check mark: ☐ ☑ ☒ ✓ ⍻ ✅ ✔ 🗸 🗹
    • Hearts: ❦ ♡ ❧ ☙ ❥ ღ ❤ 💚 💛 🧡 ❤️ 🤎 💞 💕
    • S️tars: ★ ☆ ✪ ✵ ✯ ٭ ✭ ✰ 🌟 ✡ ⚝ ⚹ ✹ ✷ ⍟ ❃ ✫ ✧ ✦
    • Bullet points: • ◦ ‣ ∙ ⦿ ⁃ ⦾ ⁍ ◘
    • Thumbs up and down: 👍 👎 ☝ 🖒 🖓
    • Dots: · ⋅ ⸳ ․ ⊙ ˙ ̣ ◌ ݀ ‥ ⁘ ⁞ ⸭ ⦙ ⸽ ⁛ ⊡ ⁖ ⁙ ᠅ ⬚
    • Music notes: 🎵 🎜 🎶𝅝 𝅗𝅥 𝅘𝅥 𝅘𝅥𝅮 𝅘𝅥𝅯 𝅘𝅥𝅰 𝅘𝅥𝅱 𝆔 𝅘𝅥𝅲 𝇠 𝇢 𝇣 𝆕 𝇤 𝇧 🎝
    • Degree symbol: ° ℃ ℉ 𝆩 𒎓
    • Infinity symbol: ∞ ⧞ ⧝ ⧜
    • Equal signs: ≈ ≠ = ≅ ≃ ≔ ⊜ ₌ ⁼ ≗ ⋜ ⋝ ≛ ≜ ≟ ≕ ≉ ≑
    • Trademark symbols: ™ © ℗ ® ℠
    • Squares: ■ □ ▢ ▣ ▤ ▦ ◩ ◪ ◩ ◧ ◦
    • Rectangles: ▬ ▭ ▮ ▯ ▰ ▱
    • Triangles: ▷ △ ▽ ◁ ▼ ▲ ◭ ◮
    • Circles: ● ◉ ◎ ○ ◖ ◗ ◒ ◓ ◔ ◕ ◡ ◠
    • Cross symbols: ˟ ⨯ ❌ ✝ ❎ 🕇 🞡 ✚ ✞ 🞤 ⛌ ✠ ♱✟ 🕈☨
    • Delta: Δ 𝚫 𝝙 𝛥 ⍙ ⍍ ⍋
    • Hammer and sickle: ☭
    • Pi symbol: 𝜋
    • Box symbol: 🮮 ☐

    Arrow Unicode symbols to copy and paste

    ← ↑ → ↓ ↔ ↕ ↖ ↗ ↘ ↙ ↚ ↛ ↜ ↝ ↞ ↟ ↠ ↡ ↢ ↣ ↤ ↥ ↦ ↧ ↨ ↩ ↪ ↫ ↬ ↭ ↮ ↯ ↰ ↱ ↲ ↳ ↴ ↵ ↶ ↷ ↸ ↹ ↺ ↻ ↼ ↽ ↾ ↿ ⇀ ⇁ ⇂ ⇃ ⇄ ⇅ ⇆ ⇇ ⇈ ⇉ ⇊ ⇋ ⇌ ⇍ ⇎ ⇏ ⇐ ⇑ ⇒ ⇓ ⇔ ⇕ ⇖ ⇗ ⇘ ⇙ ⇚ ⇛ ⇜ ⇝ ⇞ ⇟ ⇠ ⇡ ⇢ ⇣ ⇤ ⇥ ⇦ ⇧ ⇨ ⇩ ⇪ ⇫ ⇬ ⇭ ⇮ ⇯ ⇰ ⇱ ⇲ ⇳ ⇴ ⇵ ⇶ ⇷ ⇸ ⇹ ⇺ ⇻ ⇼ ⇽ ⇾ ⇿


    Face emojis to copy and paste

    😀 😁 😂 😃 😄 😅 😆 😇 😈 😉 😊 😋 😌 😍 😎 😏
    😐 😑 😒 😓 😔 😕 😖 😗 😘 😙 😚 😛 😜 😝 😞 😟
    😠 😡 😢 😣 😤 😥 😦 😧 😨 😩 😪 😫 😬 😭 😮 😯
    😰 😱 😲 😳 😴 😵 😶 😷 😸 😹 😺 😻 😼 😽 😾 😿
    🙀 🙁 🙂 🙃 🙄 🙅 🙆 🙇 🙈 🙉 🙊 🙋 🙌 🙍 🙎 🙏


    Miscellaneous emojis and Unicode symbols

    👍 👎 ☀ ☁ ☂ ☃ ☄ ★ ☆ ☇ ☈ ☉ ☊ ☋ ☌ ☍ ☎ ☏
    ☐ ☑ ☒ ☓ ☔ ☕ ☖ ☗ ☘ ☙ ☚ ☛ ☜ ☝ ☞ ☟
    ☠ ☡ ☢ ☣ ☤ ☥ ☦ ☧ ☨ ☩ ☪ ☫ ☬ ☭ ☮ ☯
    ☰ ☱ ☲ ☳ ☴ ☵ ☶ ☷ ☸ ☹ ☺ ☻ ☼ ☽ ☾ ☿
    ♀ ♁ ♂ ♃ ♄ ♅ ♆ ♇ ♈ ♉ ♊ ♋ ♌ ♍ ♎ ♏
    ♐ ♑ ♒ ♓ ♔ ♕ ♖ ♗ ♘ ♙ ♚ ♛ ♜ ♝ ♞ ♟
    ♠ ♡ ♢ ♣ ♤ ♥ ♦ ♧ ♨ ♩ ♪ ♫ ♬ ♭ ♮ ♯
    ♰ ♱ ♲ ♳ ♴ ♵ ♶ ♷ ♸ ♹ ♺ ♻ ♼ ♽ ♾ ♿
    ⚀ ⚁ ⚂ ⚃ ⚄ ⚅ ⚆ ⚇ ⚈ ⚉ ⚊ ⚋ ⚌ ⚍ ⚎ ⚏
    ⚐ ⚑ ⚒ ⚓ ⚔ ⚕ ⚖ ⚗ ⚘ ⚙ ⚚ ⚛ ⚜ ⚝ ⚞ ⚟
    ⚠ ⚡ ⚢ ⚣ ⚤ ⚥ ⚦ ⚧ ⚨ ⚩ ⚪ ⚫ ⚬ ⚭ ⚮ ⚯
    ⚰ ⚱ ⚲ ⚳ ⚴ ⚵ ⚶ ⚷ ⚸ ⚹ ⚺ ⚻ ⚼ ⚽ ⚾ ⚿
    ⛀ ⛁ ⛂ ⛃ ⛄ ⛅ ⛆ ⛇ ⛈ ⛉ ⛊ ⛋ ⛌ ⛍ ⛎ ⛏
    ⛐ ⛑ ⛒ ⛓ ⛔ ⛕ ⛖ ⛗ ⛘ ⛙ ⛚ ⛛ ⛜ ⛝ ⛞ ⛟
    ⛠ ⛡ ⛢ ⛣ ⛤ ⛥ ⛦ ⛧ ⛨ ⛩ ⛪ ⛫ ⛬ ⛭ ⛮ ⛯
    ⛰ ⛱ ⛲ ⛳ ⛴ ⛵ ⛶ ⛷ ⛸ ⛹ ⛺ ⛻ ⛼ ⛽ ⛾ ⛿


    Food emojis to copy and paste

    • ☕ — hot beverage
    • ⛾ — restaurant
    • 🍅 — tomato
    • 🍊 — tangerine
    • 🍏 — green apple
    • 🥑 — avocado
    • 🍔 — hamburger
    • 🍕 — slice of pizza
    • 🍙 — rice ball
    • 🍞 — bread
    • 🍣 — sushi
    • 🍨 — ice cream
    • 🍭 — lollipop
    • 🍲 — pot of food
    • 🍷 — wine glass
    • 🍼 — baby bottle
    • 🍓 — strawberry

    Line shapes in Unicode to copy and paste

    ─ ━ │ ┃ ┄ ┅ ┆ ┇ ┈ ┉ ┊ ┋ ┌ ┍ ┎ ┏
    ┐ ┑ ┒ ┓ └ ┕ ┖ ┗ ┘ ┙ ┚ ┛ ├ ┝ ┞ ┟
    ┠ ┡ ┢ ┣ ┤ ┥ ┦ ┧ ┨ ┩ ┪ ┫ ┬ ┭ ┮ ┯
    ┰ ┱ ┲ ┳ ┴ ┵ ┶ ┷ ┸ ┹ ┺ ┻ ┼ ┽ ┾ ┿
    ╀ ╁ ╂ ╃ ╄ ╅ ╆ ╇ ╈ ╉ ╊ ╋ ╌ ╍ ╎ ╏
    ═ ║ ╒ ╓ ╔ ╕ ╖ ╗ ╘ ╙ ╚ ╛ ╜ ╝ ╞ ╟
    ╠ ╡ ╢ ╣ ╤ ╥ ╦ ╧ ╨ ╩ ╪ ╫ ╬ ╭ ╮ ╯
    ╰ ╱ ╲ ╳ ╴ ╵ ╶ ╷ ╸ ╹ ╺ ╻ ╼ ╽ ╾ ╿


    Circled letters and numbers

    ① ② ③ ④ ⑤ ⑥ ⑦ ⑧ ⑨ ⑩ ⑪ ⑫ ⑬ ⑭ ⑮ ⑯
    ⑰ ⑱ ⑲ ⑳ ⑴ ⑵ ⑶ ⑷ ⑸ ⑹ ⑺ ⑻ ⑼ ⑽ ⑾ ⑿
    ⒀ ⒁ ⒂ ⒃ ⒄ ⒅ ⒆ ⒇ ⒈ ⒉ ⒊ ⒋ ⒌ ⒍ ⒎ ⒏
    ⒐ ⒑ ⒒ ⒓ ⒔ ⒕ ⒖ ⒗ ⒘ ⒙ ⒚ ⒛ ⒜ ⒝ ⒞ ⒟
    ⒠ ⒡ ⒢ ⒣ ⒤ ⒥ ⒦ ⒧ ⒨ ⒩ ⒪ ⒫ ⒬ ⒭ ⒮ ⒯
    ⒰ ⒱ ⒲ ⒳ ⒴ ⒵ Ⓐ Ⓑ Ⓒ Ⓓ Ⓔ Ⓕ Ⓖ Ⓗ Ⓘ Ⓙ
    Ⓚ Ⓛ Ⓜ Ⓝ Ⓞ Ⓟ Ⓠ Ⓡ Ⓢ Ⓣ Ⓤ Ⓥ Ⓦ Ⓧ Ⓨ Ⓩ
    ⓐ ⓑ ⓒ ⓓ ⓔ ⓕ ⓖ ⓗ ⓘ ⓙ ⓚ ⓛ ⓜ ⓝ ⓞ ⓟ
    ⓠ ⓡ ⓢ ⓣ ⓤ ⓥ ⓦ ⓧ ⓨ ⓩ ⓪ ⓫ ⓬ ⓭ ⓮ ⓯
    ⓰ ⓱ ⓲ ⓳ ⓴ ⓵ ⓶ ⓷ ⓸ ⓹ ⓺ ⓻ ⓼ ⓽ ⓾ ⓿


    Math symbols to copy and paste

    ∀ ∁ ∂ ∃ ∄ ∅ ∆ ∇ ∈ ∉ ∊ ∋ ∌ ∍ ∎ ∏
    ∐ ∑ − ∓ ∔ ∕ ∖ ∗ ∘ ∙ √ ∛ ∜ ∝ ∞ ∟
    ∠ ∡ ∢ ∣ ∤ ∥ ∦ ∧ ∨ ∩ ∪ ∫ ∬ ∭ ∮ ∯
    ∰ ∱ ∲ ∳ ∴ ∵ ∶ ∷ ∸ ∹ ∺ ∻ ∼ ∽ ∾ ∿
    ≀ ≁ ≂ ≃ ≄ ≅ ≆ ≇ ≈ ≉ ≊ ≋ ≌ ≍ ≎ ≏
    ≐ ≑ ≒ ≓ ≔ ≕ ≖ ≗ ≘ ≙ ≚ ≛ ≜ ≝ ≞ ≟
    ≠ ≡ ≢ ≣ ≤ ≥ ≦ ≧ ≨ ≩ ≪ ≫ ≬ ≭ ≮ ≯
    ≰ ≱ ≲ ≳ ≴ ≵ ≶ ≷ ≸ ≹ ≺ ≻ ≼ ≽ ≾ ≿
    ⊀ ⊁ ⊂ ⊃ ⊄ ⊅ ⊆ ⊇ ⊈ ⊉ ⊊ ⊋ ⊌ ⊍ ⊎ ⊏
    ⊐ ⊑ ⊒ ⊓ ⊔ ⊕ ⊖ ⊗ ⊘ ⊙ ⊚ ⊛ ⊜ ⊝ ⊞ ⊟
    ⊠ ⊡ ⊢ ⊣ ⊤ ⊥ ⊦ ⊧ ⊨ ⊩ ⊪ ⊫ ⊬ ⊭ ⊮ ⊯
    ⊰ ⊱ ⊲ ⊳ ⊴ ⊵ ⊶ ⊷ ⊸ ⊹ ⊺ ⊻ ⊼ ⊽ ⊾ ⊿
    ⋀ ⋁ ⋂ ⋃ ⋄ ⋅ ⋆ ⋇ ⋈ ⋉ ⋊ ⋋ ⋌ ⋍ ⋎ ⋏
    ⋐ ⋑ ⋒ ⋓ ⋔ ⋕ ⋖ ⋗ ⋘ ⋙ ⋚ ⋛ ⋜ ⋝ ⋞ ⋟
    ⋠ ⋡ ⋢ ⋣ ⋤ ⋥ ⋦ ⋧ ⋨ ⋩ ⋪ ⋫ ⋬ ⋭ ⋮ ⋯
    ⋰ ⋱ ⋲ ⋳ ⋴ ⋵ ⋶ ⋷ ⋸ ⋹ ⋺ ⋻ ⋼ ⋽ ⋾ ⋿


    Roman numerals

    Ⅰ Ⅱ Ⅲ Ⅳ Ⅴ Ⅵ Ⅶ Ⅷ Ⅸ Ⅹ Ⅺ Ⅻ Ⅼ Ⅽ Ⅾ Ⅿ
    ⅰ ⅱ ⅲ ⅳ ⅴ ⅵ ⅶ ⅷ ⅸ ⅹ ⅺ ⅻ ⅼ ⅽ ⅾ ⅿ
    ↀ ↁ ↂ Ↄ ↄ ↅ ↆ ↇ ↈ ↉ ↊ ↋


    Currency symbols

    ₠ ₡ ₢ ₣ ₤ ₥ ₦ ₧ ₨ ₩ ₪ ₫ € ₭ ₮ ₯
    ₰ ₱ ₲ ₳ ₴ ₵ ₶ ₷ ₸ ₹ ₺ ₻ ₼ ₽ ₾ ₿ $$ ௹ ৲ ₹ ৳ 원 ㍐ 圓 元 円 ﷼ ៛ ₰ ¤ ₸ ₴ ¥ ¥ ₿ ฿ ¢ ₡ ¢ ₢


    Superscripts and subscripts to copy and paste

    ⁰ ⁱ ⁵ ⁶ ⁷ ⁸ ⁹ ⁺ ⁻ ⁼ ⁽ ⁾ ⁿ
    ₀ ₁ ₂ ₃ ₄ ₅ ₆ ₇ ₈ ₉ ₊ ₋ ₌ ₍ ₎
    ₐ ₑ ₒ ₓ ₔ ₕ ₖ ₗ ₘ ₙ ₚ ₛ ₜ


    Health and medical emojis to copy and paste

    • ☠ — skull and crossbones
    • ☡ — caution sign (curves ahead on-road)
    • ☢ — radioactive sign (trefoil)
    • ☣ — biohazard sign
    • ☤ — caduceus
    • ☮ — peace symbol
    • ☯ — yin yang
    • ♿ — wheelchair symbol
    • ⚕ — staff of Asclepius
    • ⚠ — warning sign
    • ⚡ — high voltage sign
    • ⛐ — sliding car
    • ⛨ — hospital
    • 💉 — syringe
    • 💊 — pill

    Sports emojis and Unicode symbols

    ⚽ — soccer
    ⚾ — baseball
    ⛷ — skier
    🎮 — video game
    🎳 — bowling
    🎽 — running shirt and sash
    🏀 — basketball
    🏃 — runner
    🏆 — trophy
    🏉 — rugby
    ♔ — white chess king
    ♕ — white chess queen
    ♖ — white chess rook
    ♗ — white chess bishop
    ♘ — white chess knight
    ♙ — white chess pawn
    ♚ — black chess king
    ♛ — black chess queen
    ♜ — black chess rook
    ♝ — black chess bishop
    ♞ — black chess knight
    ♟ — black chess pawn


    Playing cards Unicode symbols

    ♠ — black spade suit
    ♡ — white heart suit
    ♢ — white diamond suit
    ♣ — black club suit
    ♤ — white spade suit
    ♥ — black heart suit
    ♦ — black diamond suit
    ♧ — white club suit


    Musical and music note Unicode symbols

    🎵 — musical note
    🎶 — multiple musical notes
    🎸 — guitar
    🎻 — violin

    ♩ — quarter note
    ♪ — eighth note
    ♫ — beamed eighth notes
    ♬ — beamed sixteenth notes
    ♭ — music flat sign
    ♮ — music natural sign
    ♯ — music sharp sign
    𝄆 — left repeat sign
    𝄇 — right repeat sign
    𝄐 — fermata
    𝄜 — six-string fretboard (for tablature)
    𝄞 — G Clef
    𝄟 — G Clef ottava alta
    𝄠 — G Clef ottava bassa
    𝄡 — C Clef
    𝄢 — F Clef
    𝄣 — F clef ottava alta
    𝄤 — F clef ottava bassa
    𝄥 — drum clef-1
    𝄦 — symbol drum clef-2
    𝇐 — musical symbol gregorian C clef
    𝇑 — Gregorian F Clef
    𝄪 — double sharp
    𝄫 — double flat
    𝄴 — common time
    𝄻 — whole rest
    𝄼 — half rest
    𝄽 — quarter rest
    𝅗𝅥 — half note
    𝅘𝅥𝅯 — sixteenth note
    𝅘𝅥𝅰 — Thirty-second note
    𝅘𝅥𝅱 — Sixty-fourth note
    𝅘𝅥𝅲 — One hundred twenty-eighth note
    𝆒 — crescendo


    Shapes Unicode symbols to copy and paste

    • ■ — Black square
    • □ — White square
    • ▢ — White square with rounded corners
    • ▣ — White square containing small black square
    • ▤ — Square with horizontal fill
    • ▥ — Square with vertical fill
    • ▦ — Square with orthogonal crosshatch fill
    • ▧ — Square with upper left to lower right fill
    • ▨ — Square with upper right to lower left fill
    • ▩ — Square with diagonal crosshatch fill
    • ▪ — Black small square
    • ▫ — White small square
    • ▬ — Black rectangle
    • ▭ — White rectangle
    • ▮ — Black vertical rectangle
    • ▯ — White vertical rectangle
    • ▰ — Black parallelogram
    • ▱ — White parallelogram
    • ▲ — Black up-pointing triangle
    • △ — White up-pointing triangle
    • ▴ — Black up-pointing small triangle
    • ▵ — White up-pointing small triangle
    • ▶ — Black right-pointing triangle
    • ▷ — White right-pointing triangle
    • ▸ — Black right-pointing small triangle
    • ▹ — White right-pointing small triangle
    • ► — Black right-pointing pointer
    • ▻ — White right-pointing pointer
    • ▼ — Black down-pointing triangle
    • ▽ — White down-pointing triangle
    • ▾ — Black down-pointing small triangle
    • ▿ — White down-pointing small triangle
    • ◀ — Black left-pointing triangle
    • ◁ — White left-pointing triangle
    • ◂ — Black left-pointing small triangle
    • ◃ — White left-pointing small triangle
    • ◄ — Black left-pointing pointer
    • ◅ — White left-pointing pointer
    • ◆ — Black diamond
    • ◇ — White diamond
    • ◈ — White diamond containing small black diamond
    • ◉ — Fisheye
    • ◊ — Lozenge
    • ○ — White circle
    • ◌ — Dotted circle
    • ◍ — Circle with vertical fill
    • ◎ — Bullseye
    • ● — Black circle
    • ◐ — Circle with left half black
    • ◑ — Circle with right half black
    • ◒ — Circle with lower half black
    • ◓ — Circle with upper half black
    • ◔ — Circle with upper right quadrant black
    • ◕ — Circle with all but upper left quadrant black
    • ◖ — Left half circle black
    • ◗ — Right half black circle
    • ◘ — Inverse bullet
    • ◙ — Inverse white circle
    • ◚ — Upper half inverse white circle
    • ◛ — Lower half inverse white circle
    • ◜ — Upper left quadrant circular arc
    • ◝ — Upper right quadrant circular arc
    • ◞ — Lower right quadrant circular arc
    • ◟ — Lower left quadrant circular arc
    • ◠ — Upper half circle
    • ◡ — Lower half circle
    • ◢ — Black lower right triangle
    • ◣ — Black lower left triangle
    • ◤ — Black upper left triangle
    • ◥ — Black upper right triangle
    • ◦ — White bullet
    • ◧ — Square with left half black
    • ◨ — Square with right half black
    • ◩ — Square with upper left diagonal half black
    • ◪ — Square with lower right diagonal half black
    • ◫ — White square with vertical bisecting line
    • ◬ — White up-pointing triangle with dot
    • ◭ — Up-pointing triangle with left half black
    • ◮ — Up-pointing triangle with right half black
    • ◯ — Large circle
    • ◰ — White square with upper left quadrant
    • ◱ — White square with lower left quadrant
    • ◲ — White square with lower right quadrant
    • ◳ — White square with upper right quadrant
    • ◴ — White circle with upper left quadrant
    • ◵ — White circle with lower left quadrant
    • ◶ — White circle with lower right quadrant
    • ◷ — White circle with upper right quadrant
    • ◸ — Upper left triangle
    • ◹ — Upper right triangle
    • ◺ — Lower-left triangle
    • ◻ — White medium square
    • ◼ — Black medium square
    • ◽ — White medium small square
    • ◾ — Black medium small square
    • ◿ — Lower right triangle

    Numbers and fractions to copy and paste

    • One-half: ½
    • One-third: ⅓
    • Two-thirds: ⅔
    • One-quarter: ¼
    • Three-quarters: ¾
    • One-fifth: ⅕
    • Two-fifths: ⅖
    • Three-fifths: ⅗
    • Four-fifths: ⅘
    • One-sixth: ⅙
    • Five-sixths: ⅚
    • One-seventh: ⅐
    • One-eighth: ⅛
    • Three-eighths: ⅜
    • Five-eighths: ⅝
    • Seven-eighths: ⅞
    • One-ninth: ⅑
    • One-tenth: ⅒
    • Fraction numerator one: ⅟
    • Fraction slash: ⁄

    Greek Letters

    • Ͱ — Greek Capital Letter Heta
    • ͱ — Greek Small Letter Heta
    • Ͳ — Greek Capital Letter Archaic Sampi
    • ͳ — Greek Small Letter Archaic Sampi
    • ʹ — Greek Numeral Sign
    • ͵ — Greek Lower Numeral Sign
    • Ͷ — Greek Capital Letter Pamphylian Digamma
    • ͷ — Greek Small Letter Pamphylian Digamma
    • ͺ — Greek Ypogegrammeni
    • ͻ — Greek Small Reversed Lunate Sigma Symbol
    • ͼ — Greek Small Dotted Lunate Sigma Symbol
    • ͽ — Greek Small Reversed Dotted Lunate Sigma Symbol
    • ; — Greek Question Mark
    • Ϳ — Greek Capital Letter Yot
    • ΄ — Greek acute accent (tonos)
    • ΅ — Greek diaeresis with acute accent
    • Ά — Greek Capital Letter A with acute accent
    • · — Greek Ano Teleia
    • Έ — Greek Capital Letter Epsilon with acute accent
    • Ή — Greek Capital Letter Eta with acute accent
    • Ί — Greek Capital Letter Iota with acute accent
    • Ό — Greek Capital Letter Omicron with acute accent
    • Ύ — Greek Capital Letter Upsilon with acute accent
    • Ώ — Greek Capital Letter Omega with acute accent
    • ΐ — Greek Small Letter Iota with diaeresis and acute accent
    • Α — Greek Capital Letter Alpha
    • Β — Greek Capital Letter Beta
    • Γ — Greek Capital Letter Gamma
    • Δ — Greek Capital Letter Delta
    • Ε — Greek Capital Letter Epsilon
    • Ζ — Greek Capital Letter Zeta
    • Η — Greek Capital Letter Eta
    • Θ — Greek Capital Letter Theta
    • Ι — Greek Capital Letter Iota
    • Κ — Greek Capital Letter Kappa
    • Λ — Greek Capital Letter Lambda
    • Μ — Greek Capital Letter Mu
    • Ν — Greek Capital Letter Nu
    • Ξ — Greek Capital Letter Xi
    • Ο — Greek Capital Letter Omicron
    • Π — Greek Capital Letter Pi
    • Ρ — Greek Capital Letter Rho
    • Σ — Greek Capital Letter Sigma
    • Τ — Greek Capital Letter Tau
    • Υ — Greek Capital Letter Upsilon
    • Φ — Greek Capital Letter Phi
    • Χ — Greek Capital Letter Chi
    • Ψ — Greek Capital Letter Psi
    • Ω — Greek Capital Letter Omega
    • Ϊ — Greek Capital Letter Iota with diaeresis
    • Ϋ — Greek Capital Letter Upsilon with diaeresis
    • ά — Greek Small Letter Alpha with acute accent
    • έ — Greek Small Letter Epsilon with acute accent
    • ή — Greek Small Letter Eta with acute accent
    • ί — Greek Small Letter Iota with acute accent
    • ΰ — Greek Small Letter Upsilon with diaeresis and acute accent
    • α — Greek Small Letter Alpha
    • β — Greek Small Letter Beta
    • γ — Greek Small Letter Gamma
    • δ — Greek Small Letter Delta
    • ε — Greek Small Letter Epsilon
    • ζ — Greek Small Letter Zeta
    • η — Greek Small Letter Eta
    • θ — Greek Small Letter Theta
    • ι — Greek Small Letter Iota
    • κ — Greek Small Letter Kappa
    • λ — Greek Small Letter Lambda
    • μ — Greek Small Letter Mu
    • ν — Greek Small Letter Nu
    • ξ — Greek Small Letter Xi
    • ο — Greek Small Letter Omicron
    • π — Greek Small Letter Pi
    • ρ — Greek Small Letter Rho
    • ς — Greek Small Letter Final Sigma
    • σ — Greek Small Letter Sigma
    • τ — Greek Small Letter Tau
    • υ — Greek Small Letter Upsilon
    • φ — Greek Small Letter Phi
    • χ — Greek Small Letter Chi
    • ψ — Greek Small Letter Psi
    • ω — Greek Small Letter Omega
    • ϊ — Greek Small Letter Iota with diaeresis
    • ϋ — Greek Small Letter Upsilon with diaeresis
    • ό — Greek Small Letter Omicron with acute accent
    • ύ — Greek Small Letter Upsilon with acute accent
    • ώ — Greek Small Letter Omega with acute accent
    • Ϗ — Greek Capital Kai Symbol
    • ϐ — Greek Beta Symbol
    • ϑ — Greek Theta Symbol
    • ϒ — Greek Upsilon with hook Symbol
    • ϓ — Greek Upsilon with acute and hook Symbol
    • ϔ — Greek Upsilon with diaeresis and hook Symbol
    • ϕ — Greek Phi Symbol
    • ϖ — Greek Pi Symbol
    • ϗ — Greek Kai Symbol
    • Ϙ — Greek Letter Qoppa
    • ϙ — Greek Small Letter Qoppa
    • Ϛ — Greek Letter Stigma (letter)
    • ϛ — Greek Small Letter Stigma
    • Ϝ — Greek Letter Digamma
    • ϝ — Greek Small Letter Digamma
    • Ϟ — Greek Letter Koppa
    • ϟ — Greek Small Letter Koppa
    • Ϡ — Greek Letter Sampi
    • ϡ — Greek Small Letter Sampi
    • Ϣ — Coptic Capital Letter Shei
    • ϣ — Coptic Small Letter Shei
    • Ϥ — Coptic Capital Letter Fei
    • ϥ — Coptic Small Letter Fei
    • Ϧ — Coptic Capital Letter Khei
    • ϧ — Coptic Small Letter Khei
    • Ϩ — Coptic Capital Letter Hori
    • ϩ — Coptic Small Letter Hori
    • Ϫ — Coptic Capital Letter Gangia
    • ϫ — Coptic Small Letter Gangia
    • Ϭ — Coptic Capital Letter Shima
    • ϭ — Coptic Small Letter Shima
    • Ϯ — Coptic Capital Letter Dei
    • ϯ — Coptic Small Letter Dei
    • ϰ — Greek Kappa Symbol
    • ϱ — Greek Rho Symbol
    • ϲ — Greek Lunate Sigma Symbol
    • ϳ — Greek Letter Yot
    • ϴ — Greek Capital Theta Symbol
    • ϵ — Greek Lunate Epsilon Symbol
    • ϶ — Greek Reversed Lunate Epsilon Symbol
    • Ϸ — Greek Capital Sho
    • ϸ — Greek Small Letter Sho
    • Ϲ — Greek Capital Lunate Sigma Symbol
    • Ϻ — Greek Capital San
    • ϻ — Greek Small Letter San
    • ϼ — Greek Rho with stroke Symbol
    • Ͻ — Greek Capital Reversed Lunate Sigma Symbol
    • Ͼ — Greek Capital Dotted Lunate Sigma Symbol
    • Ͽ — Greek Capital Reversed Dotted Lunate Sigma Symbol

    More Greek letters to copy and paste

    ἀ ἁ ἂ ἃ ἄ ἅ ἆ ἇ Ἀ Ἁ Ἂ Ἃ Ἄ Ἅ Ἆ Ἇ
    ἐ ἑ ἒ ἓ ἔ ἕ Ἐ Ἑ Ἒ Ἓ Ἔ Ἕ
    ἠ ἡ ἢ ἣ ἤ ἥ ἦ ἧ Ἠ Ἡ Ἢ Ἣ Ἤ Ἥ Ἦ Ἧ
    ἰ ἱ ἲ ἳ ἴ ἵ ἶ ἷ Ἰ Ἱ Ἲ Ἳ Ἴ Ἵ Ἶ Ἷ
    ὀ ὁ ὂ ὃ ὄ ὅ Ὀ Ὁ Ὂ Ὃ Ὄ Ὅ
    ὐ ὑ ὒ ὓ ὔ ὕ ὖ ὗ Ὑ Ὓ Ὕ Ὗ
    ὠ ὡ ὢ ὣ ὤ ὥ ὦ ὧ Ὠ Ὡ Ὢ Ὣ Ὤ Ὥ Ὦ Ὧ
    ὰ ά ὲ έ ὴ ή ὶ ί ὸ ό ὺ ύ ὼ ώ
    ᾀ ᾁ ᾂ ᾃ ᾄ ᾅ ᾆ ᾇ ᾈ ᾉ ᾊ ᾋ ᾌ ᾍ ᾎ ᾏ
    ᾐ ᾑ ᾒ ᾓ ᾔ ᾕ ᾖ ᾗ ᾘ ᾙ ᾚ ᾛ ᾜ ᾝ ᾞ ᾟ
    ᾠ ᾡ ᾢ ᾣ ᾤ ᾥ ᾦ ᾧ ᾨ ᾩ ᾪ ᾫ ᾬ ᾭ ᾮ ᾯ
    ᾰ ᾱ ᾲ ᾳ ᾴ ᾶ ᾷ Ᾰ Ᾱ Ὰ Ά ᾼ ᾽ ι ᾿
    ῀ ῁ ῂ ῃ ῄ ῆ ῇ Ὲ Έ Ὴ Ή ῌ ῍ ῎ ῏
    ῐ ῑ ῒ ΐ ῖ ῗ Ῐ Ῑ Ὶ Ί ῝ ῞ ῟
    ῠ ῡ ῢ ΰ ῤ ῥ ῦ ῧ Ῠ Ῡ Ὺ Ύ Ῥ ῭ ΅ `
    ῲ ῳ ῴ ῶ ῷ Ὸ Ό Ὼ Ώ ῼ ´ ῾


    Latin letters

    • Ḃ — Latin capital letter B with dot above
    • ḃ — Latin small letter B with dot above
    • Ḋ — Latin capital letter D with dot above
    • ḋ — Latin small letter D with dot above
    • Ḟ — Latin capital letter F with dot above
    • ḟ — Latin small letter F with dot above
    • Ṁ — Latin capital letter M with dot above
    • ṁ — Latin small letter M with dot above
    • Ṗ — Latin capital letter P with dot above
    • ṗ — Latin small letter P with dot above
    • Ṡ — Latin capital letter S with dot above
    • ṡ — Latin small letter S with dot above
    • Ṫ — Latin capital letter T with dot above
    • ṫ — Latin small letter T with dot above
    • Ẁ — Latin capital letter W with grave
    • ẁ — Latin small letter W with grave
    • Ẃ — Latin capital letter W with acute
    • ẃ — Latin small letter W with acute
    • Ẅ — Latin capital letter W with diaeresis
    • ẅ — Latin small letter W with diaeresis
    • ẛ — Latin small letter long S with dot above
    • Ỳ — Latin capital letter Y with grave

    Wrapup

    The above categories of emojis and Unicode symbols are ones that I feel are amongst the most useful.

    Wikipedia has amazing lists of emojis as well as a full list of the Unicode symbols.

    ⚡⚡Be aware those two webpages can take some time to load because they’re so big.⚡⚡

    Thanks for reading and using this list!


    J.J. Pryor

    Head over here for more of my shenanigans.

  • 129 Tongue Twisters to Practice and Perfect English Pronunciation

    “Twist a tongue, and tongue a twist how many twists can a tongue twister twist around the twisting tongue.”― Jazz Feylynn

    Who doesn’t remember having a favorite tongue twister as a kid? For me, it was the “how much wood could a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood.”

    Even to this day I can say it at a breakneck pace, much to the amusement of anyone around me at the time.

    But one thing I never realized as a child was the importance of tongue twisters. I thought they were just a fun little trick meant to kill some time after a bunch of practice — kind of like a magic trick.

    But it turns out people all around the world practice tongue twisters in English, even as adults! Why? Because it’s a great tool for learning to pronounce and enunciate difficult sounds in the English language!

    And what better way to learn a language than when it’s something fun?

    This article explores a bit of the history of tongue twisters, how to make your own, and of course, a list of 129 pre-existing tongue twisters at the end.

    Let’s jump in!

    What is a tongue twister?

    A tongue twister is a sentence or phrase that’s difficult to speak out loud, usually due to several alliterations and similar-sounding consonants.

    For example:

    • Peter Piper picked a pale of peppers.
    • How much wood could a woodchuck chuck?
    • She sells seashells by the seashore.

    And while some tongue twisters are longer, the short ones are often meant to be repeated multiple times in a row.

    • Toy boat
    • Top cop
    • Edward edited it

    They also usually consist of a combination of alliteration and similar-sounding consonants.

    Alliteration is the repetition of initial sounds in a series of words.

    Think of sentences like:

    • Amy ate apples
    • Greg gorged gleefully
    • Zack’s zany zoo

    Whereas similar-sounding consonants are more in the domain of how we sound out a word. The easiest way to recognize a consonant is that they’re the opposite of a vowel!

    Examples of constants:

    • Using your lips to pronounce “p” and “b”
    • Using the front of your tongue to pronounce “t” and “d”
    • Using the back of the tongue to pronounce “k” and “g”
    • Using your throat to pronounce “h”
    • Using forced air to pronounce “f” and “v” and “s”
    • Using your nasal cavity to pronounce “m” and “n” (Try plugging your nose and humming those letters!)

    Combine the two literary devices, throw in some humor and/or a story, and you have yourself a brand new tongue twister!

    Fun facts about tongue twisters

    What’s the hardest tongue twister in the world?

    Well, back in 1974, the Guinness World Records listed the most difficult tongue twister in the English language for the last time. Their final winner?

    The sixth sick sheikh’s sixth sheep’s sick.

    But according to the author and columnist William Poundstone, after testing numerous English speakers, he claimed the most difficult tongue twister in the world is:

    The seething sea ceaseth and thus the seething sea sufficeth us.

    Did you know the famous “She sells seashells” tongue twister was made into a song?

    While the original phrase was created as a dictation exercise in 1850, the twister was turned into lyrics in a famous song in 19908, by British songwriter Terry Sullivan and musician Harry Gifford.

    There’s also a National Tongue Twister Day, celebrated annually on November 8! People can be pretty serious about seemingly silly things, can’t they?

    Did you want to create your own tongue twisters? It’s not too hard. Plus, it’s fun! That’s why I created a simple 7-step process to make your own.

    129 Tongue Twisters in Alphabetical Order

    Here’s a huge list of tongue twisters to play with, teach with, or just practice for yourself! I listed them in alphabetic order for ease of reading. Also, if one of the tongue twisters is short, like one to three words, the idea is to repeat them multiple times over and over.

    1. A big black bear sat on a big black rug.
    2. A flea and a fly flew up in a flue.
    3. A happy hippo hopped and hiccupped.
    4. A pessimistic pest exists amidst us.
    5. A proper copper coffee pot.
    6. A really leery Larry rolls readily to the road.
    7. A shapeless sash sags slowly.
    8. A skunk sat on a stump and thunk the stump stunk, but the stump thunk the skunk stunk.
    9. A snake sneaks to seek a snack.
    10. A synonym for cinnamon is a cinnamon synonym.
    11. An ape hates grape cakes.
    12. Any noise annoys an oyster but a noisy noise annoys an oyster more.
    13. Bake big batches of bitter brown bread.
    14. Betty Botter bought some butter but, said she, the butter’s bitter. If I put it in my batter, it will make my batter bitter. But a bit of better butter will make my bitter batter better. So she So ‘t was better Betty Botter bought some better butter.put it in her bitter batter, made her bitter batter better.
    15. Betty’s big bunny bobbled by the blueberry bush.
    16. Birdie birdie in the sky laid a turdie in my eye. If cows could fly I’d have a cow pie in my eye.
    17. Black back bat.
    18. Blue bluebird.
    19. Brisk brave brigadiers brandished broad bright blades, blunderbusses, and bludgeons — balancing them badly.
    20. Can you can a can as a canner can can a can?
    21. Can you can a canned can into an un-canned can like a canner can can a canned can into an un-canned can?
    22. Cooks cook cupcakes quickly.
    23. Daddy draws doors.
    24. Double bubble gum, bubbles double.
    25. Each Easter Eddie eats eighty Easter eggs.
    26. Eddie edited it.
    27. Eleven benevolent elephants.
    28. Elizabeth has eleven elves in her elm tree.
    29. Flash message.
    30. Four fine fresh fish for you.
    31. Four furious friends fought for the phone.
    32. Fred fed Ted bread and Ted fed Fred bread.
    33. Fresh French fried fly fritters.
    34. Fresh fried fish.
    35. Friendly fleas and fireflies.
    36. Fuzzy Wuzzy was a bear. Fuzzy Wuzzy had no hair. Fuzzy Wuzzy wasn’t fuzzy, was he?
    37. Give papa a proper cup of coffee in a copper coffee cup.
    38. Gobbling gargoyles gobbled gobbling goblins.
    39. Good blood, bad blood.
    40. Green glass globes glow greenly.
    41. He threw three free throws.
    42. How can a clam cram in a clean cream can?
    43. How many yaks could a yak pack, pack if a yak pack could pack yaks?
    44. How much ground would a groundhog hog, if a groundhog could hog ground? A groundhog would hog all the ground he could hog, if a groundhog could hog ground.
    45. How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood? He would chuck, he would, as much as he could, and chuck as much wood as a woodchuck would if a woodchuck could chuck wood.
    46. I have got a date at a quarter to eight; I’ll see you at the gate, so don’t be late.
    47. I looked right at Larry’s rally and left in a hurry.
    48. I saw a kitten eating chicken in the kitchen.
    49. I saw Susie sitting in a shoeshine shop.
    50. I scream, you scream, we all scream for ice cream.
    51. I slit the sheet, the sheet I slit, and on the slitted sheet I sit.
    52. I thought a thought. But the thought I thought Wasn’t the thought I thought I thought. If the thought I thought I thought, Had been the thought I thought, I wouldn’t have thought I thought.
    53. I thought I thought of thinking of thanking you.
    54. I wish to wash my Irish wristwatch.
    55. If a dog chews shoes, whose shoes does he choose?
    56. If practice makes perfect and perfect needs practice, I’m perfectly practiced and practically perfect.
    57. If you must cross a course cross cow across a crowded cow crossing, cross the cross coarse cow across the crowded cow crossing carefully.
    58. If you notice this notice, you will notice that this notice is not worth noticing.
    59. Imagine an imaginary menagerie manager managing an imaginary menagerie.
    60. Lesser leather never weathered wetter weather better.
    61. Linda-Lou Lambert loves lemon lollipop lipgloss.
    62. Little Lillian lets lazy lizards lie along the lily pads.
    63. Lucky rabbits like to cause a ruckus.
    64. Many an anemone sees an enemy anemone.
    65. Near an ear, a nearer ear, a nearly eerie ear.
    66. Nine nice night nurses nursing nicely.
    67. No need to light a night-light on a light night like tonight.
    68. Of all the vids I’ve ever viewed, I’ve never viewed a vid as valued as Alex’s valuable vid.
    69. One-one was a race horse. Two-two was one too. One-one won one race. Two-two won one too.
    70. Pad kid poured curd pulled cod.
    71. Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. A peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked. If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, where’s the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked?
    72. Picky people pick Peter Pan Peanut-Butter, ’tis the peanut-butter picky people pick.
    73. Pre-shrunk silk shirts.
    74. Really leery, rarely Larry.
    75. Red Buick, blue Buick.
    76. Red lorry, yellow lorry.
    77. Roberta ran rings around the Roman ruins.
    78. Rolling red wagons.
    79. Rory the warrior and Roger the worrier were reared wrongly in a rural brewery.
    80. Rory’s lawn rake rarely rakes really right.
    81. Round and round the rugged rocks the ragged rascal ran.
    82. Rubber baby buggy bumpers.
    83. Scissors sizzle, thistles sizzle.
    84. Selfish shellfish.
    85. Send toast to ten tense stout saints’ ten tall tents.
    86. She sees cheese.
    87. She sells seashells on the seashore. The shells she sells are seashells, I’m sure. And if she sells seashells on the seashore, Then I’m sure she sells seashore shells.
    88. She stood on the balcony, inexplicably mimicking him hiccuping, and amicably welcoming him in.
    89. Sheena leads, Sheila needs.
    90. Six Czech cricket critics.
    91. Six sick hicks nick six slick bricks with picks and sticks.
    92. Six sleek swans swam swiftly southwards.
    93. Six sticky skeletons.
    94. Smelly shoes and socks shock sisters.
    95. Snap crackle pop.
    96. So, this is the sushi chef.
    97. Something in a thirty-acre thermal thicket of thorns and thistles thumped and thundered threatening the 3D thoughts of Matthew the thug — although, theatrically, it was only the thirteen-thousand thistles and thorns through the underneath of his thigh that the thirty-year-old thug thought of that morning.
    98. Specific Pacific.
    99. Stupid superstition.
    100. Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious
    101. “Surely Sylvia swims!” shrieked Sammy surprised. “Someone should show Sylvia some strokes so she shall not sink.”
    102. Susie works in a shoeshine shop. Where she shines she sits, and where she sits she shines.
    103. The 33 thieves thought that they thrilled the throne throughout Thursday.
    104. The big bug bit the little beetle.
    105. The great Greek grape growers grow great Greek grapes.
    106. The sixth sick sheik’s sixth sheep’s sick.
    107. The thirty-three thieves thought that they thrilled the throne throughout Thursday.
    108. Thin sticks, thick bricks.
    109. Thirty-three thirsty, thundering thoroughbreds thumped Mr. Thurber on Thursday.
    110. Thirty-three thousand feathers on a thrushes throat.
    111. Three free throws.
    112. Tie twine to three tree twigs.
    113. Tom threw Tim three thumbtacks.
    114. Top chopstick shops stock top chopsticks.
    115. Toy boat. Toy boat. Toy boat.
    116. Truly rural.
    117. Twelve twins twirled twelve twigs.
    118. Two tried and true tridents.
    119. Wayne went to wales to watch walruses.
    120. We surely shall see the sun shine soon.
    121. Which witch is which?
    122. Which wrist watches are Swiss wrist watches?
    123. Willie’s really weary.
    124. Willy’s real rear wheel.
    125. Yellow butter, purple jelly, red jam, black bread. Spread it thick, say it quick! Yellow butter, purple jelly, red jam, black bread. Spread it thicker, say it quicker! Yellow butter, purple jelly, red jam, black bread.
    126. You know New York, you need New York, you know you need unique New York.
    127. Green Greg greedily grifts a grail of green grapes to greet his grandkids.
    128. Groggy Greg graciously gripes at the groovy groom to grease his grumpiness.
    129. Greedy Greg gracefully grabs the grocery gristle to grip his gratin.

    J.J. Pryor

    Head over here for more of my shenanigans.

  • How to Make Your Own Tongue Twisters

    Twitch, twiddle, and twirl talented tangled tongues!

    While it’s not a common thing to include in writing, adding a tongue twister can be a great way to make your passage stand out from others. Plus, it’s fun to do!

    They’re also not the easiest literary device to use or create from.

    Then again, knowing writers as I do probably means they’d want to include more of them if it’s challenging, not less!

    There are also a thousand ways under the sun to come up with a fun tongue twister to use in your writing. But like many things in life, the more you practice them, the better you get.

    So, here’s one method I use whenever I want to twist a few tongues and frustrate readers. As it’s easier to focus on alliteration in my opinion, that’s the focus of this method.

    Let’s jump in!

    Note: You can stop this process at any point after #3 and count it as a tongue twister! They don’t have to inherently be long, many tongue twisters can be just one, two, or three words that then get repeated over and over to produce the twist.

    How to create a tongue twister in 7 easy steps

    Step #1. Grab your tools

    This exercise is probably easiest to do if you have access to a computer with internet. You can also do it on your phone but the experience might be a bit clunkier, as this method involves flipping between websites a bunch.

    Open up a thesaurus and a rhyme tool tab on your browser. For instance, I often use Power Thesaurus and Rhyme Zone for quirky exercises like this. Also, for getting ideas for words to include that start with your preferred letter, I use a website called The Free Dictionary.

    This last tool is probably all you need, depending on how complex you want to make your tongue twister.

    Step #2. Start with a noun

    Perhaps you have a specific idea in mind for your tongue twister. If that’s the case, great! Start with the noun of your idea and go from there.

    If you don’t, then I like to think of a one-letter or two-letter consonant blend like in this list.

    For example, I’m going to use the name Greg, since it’s a common name and “gr” is a fun two-letter consonant with many examples of words.

    Step #3. Add an adjective

    We’re going to take your first noun, then add an adjective to it that uses alliteration (the same sounding beginning letters).

    Examples:

    • Green Greg
    • Groggy Greg
    • Greedy Greg

    Step #4. Add a verb

    Now it’s time to add a verb after the described noun. What is it that your noun is doing? Let’s have some fun and make sure it follows the same flow and style!

    Examples:

    • Green Greg grifts
    • Groggy Greg gripes
    • Greedy Greg grabs

    Step #5. Add an adverb

    At this point, we can add an adverb to describe the verb we just placed in the tongue twister.

    Examples:

    • Green Greg greedily grifts
    • Groggy Greg graciously gripes
    • Greedy Greg gracefully grabs

    Step #6. Add another noun

    This is all leading into the what of the tongue twister, which comes before the why and conclusion. At this point, we need to answer what Greg is doing, before answering why and finishing it off.

    Examples:

    • Green Greg greedily grifts a grail of green grapes
    • Groggy Greg graciously gripes at the groovy groom
    • Greedy Greg gracefully grabs the grocery gristle

    Step #7. Add a reason

    Finally, we could try to add a why to the tongue twister and answer it, all within the same structure and style! This is starting to get more advanced by this point, which usually means more time searching for the perfect words to include, so feel free to stop already!

    So, why is Greg doing what he’s doing? Let’s try to answer with a combination of adjectives, adverbs, nouns and verbs and see what we come up with.

    Examples:

    • Green Greg greedily grifts a grail of green grapes to greet his grandkids.
    • Groggy Greg graciously gripes at the groovy groom to grease his grumpiness.
    • Greedy Greg gracefully grabs the grocery gristle to grip his gratin.

    Takeaway

    That’s it! Hopefully, you were able to create an alliterative tongue twister to use in your own writing. And if you had too much trouble with it, don’t worry, practice does make perfect with these types of things.

    I’d love to hear your own tongue twisters in the comments or any questions you might have if you tried out my method too. Thanks for reading!


    J.J. Pryor

    Head over here for more of my shenanigans.

  • What Is a Hyperbole and How to Use This Amazing Superpower in Your Writing

    “A writer who is afraid to overreach himself is as useless as a general who is afraid to be wrong.”― Raymond Chandler

    Many people think of political pundits when they hear the word hyperbole. And they’d be right to make that association. Politics is a famous realm for using hyperbole, as is marketing and humor, too.

    But what exactly is hyperbole and how is it used throughout the writing world? Let’s dig in a little.

    Definition of hyperbolic?

    Webster’s defines hyperbole as being an extravagant exaggeration. We’ll often encounter it in speeches, writing, on billboards and menus, and probably any post to hit the front page of your favorite social media app today.

    When people refer to a passage of speech or writing as being hyperbolic, it refers to the feeling of the entire piece as being full of exaggerated claims.

    It’s often used as a purposeful description of something to highlight for the reader and is meant to elicit a strong emotion or impression. And it’s definitely meant to make a reader stop and reread something — if anything to just keep their attention!

    Importantly, it’s never meant to be taken in the literal sense (it’s an exaggerated claim on purpose), otherwise, it isn’t actually hyperbole.

    And while some people inherently think the use of hyperbole is wrong in a way, I like the way the philosopher Lucius Annaeus Seneca the Younger described it:

    Hyperbole “asserts the incredible in order to arrive at the credible.” — Seneca

    On the other hand, Aristotle once wrote that:

    “Hyperboles are adolescent; for they exhibit vehemence. Therefore those in anger mostly speak them.”

    If you’ve ever watched a firey famous politician’s political speech, I’m sure that last quote might take on a bit more meaning.

    Anyway, the word hyperbole comes to us from Greek by way of Latin. The original words were hupér (ὑπέρ), which means above or beyond, and bállō (βάλλω), meaning throw. The English version of the word was first recorded in the 15th century.

    Before we jump into how to make our own versions of hyperbole, it might help to look at a bunch of examples we’re probably familiar with.

    Everyday examples of hyperbole

    Whether in the schoolyard or at the office, I’m sure you’ll recognize a bunch of these famous examples of hyperbole from your everyday life.

    • Back in my day, I walked uphill both ways to school.
    • I’m so hungry I could eat a horse!
    • I have a tonne of homework to do tonight.
    • I’m laughing to death.
    • Don’t listen to that pea-brained pundit.
    • I jogged a million miles this week.
    • I slept like a rock last night.
    • She’s as light as a feather.
    • He has a million things on his to-do list.
    • That was the hardest test in the world.
    • She ran faster than a speeding bullet.
    • I’m so happy I’m floating on cloud 9.
    • Cry me a river.
    • The car cost me an arm and a leg to buy.
    • I’ll believe that politician when pigs fly.
    • It’s raining cats and dogs outside.
    • She died of embarrassment.
    • I’m traveling to the city that never sleeps.
    • He knocked that speech out of the park.
    • You took forever to arrive.
    • Be careful crossing the street, it’s a jungle out there.
    • He talks a mile a minute.

    Examples of hyperbole in marketing and advertising

    And of course, marketers absolutely love using hyperbole in their advertisements — what better way to convince us to buy their products than by exaggerating the benefits? Sigh.

    But here’s a bunch you might be familiar with anyway.

    • “Redbull Gives you wings” — Redbull
    • “The Best a Man Can Get” — Gillette
    • “The happiest place on Earth.” — Disneyland
    • “There Is No Finish Line”— Nike
    • “The original. If your grandfather hadn’t worn it, you wouldn’t exist.” — Old Spice
    • “A diamond is forever.” — De Beers
    • “America runs on dunkin.” — Dunkin Donuts
    • “Breakfast of champions.” — Wheaties
    • “Melts in Your Mouth, Not in Your Hands” — M&Ms
    • “Tastes So Good, Cats Ask For It By Name “ — Meow Mix

    How to create your own hyperbole

    Adding a touch or two of hyperbole to your own writing is a great way to make it more interesting for the readers. The more creative, the better!

    Whenever I make it a point to add this to an essay, I’ll usually think along these lines to craft a juicy piece of hyperbole.

    1. Write the sentence in plain English first.
    2. Think of the action, emotion, or result taking place in the sentence. Is it time-related? Is a person going to be angry or sad? Is the action going to be difficult?
    3. Once you have #2 in place, think of as many ways as you can to exaggerate the idea to the 10th degree. Is a person tall? Then what are the tallest things in the world (mountains, skyscrapers, egos)?

    Let’s run threw a few examples to get the hang of it.

    • Normal sentence: He is often late for class.
    • Hyperbolic sentence: He’s so often late he’d even miss his funeral!

     

    • Normal sentence: I hurt my hand.
    • Hyperbolic sentence: My hand is killing me!

     

    • Normal sentence: The test is super hard.
    • Hyperbolic sentence: The test is harder than climbing over a sleeping bear!

     

    • Normal sentence: She’s really wealthy.
    • Hyperbolic sentence: She’s got more money than Bill Gates and Jeff Bezos’s love-child!

     

    • Normal sentence: He’s kind of dumb.
    • Hyperbolic sentence: He’s dumber than J.J. Pryor!

    And with that, I bid you adieu. Good luck in writing your hyperbole! I’m sure they’ll blast some eyeballs right out of your readers’ skulls before you know it.

  • Alliteration: Definition and Examples

    “The clever old conniver continued to cogitate.”― James D. Doss

    Alliteration is the repetition of initial sounds in a series of words. It’s a literary device often used in poetry, humor, and writing to create a musical or rhythmical effect. Alliteration can also be used to add humor to writing and also to teach language learners how to enunciate a bit better.

    Show me someone who can say “How much wood would a woodchuck chuck, if the woodchuck could chuck wood?”  in under three seconds and you’ll be showing me someone who’s impressively proficient in speaking.

    Personally, I love using alliteration to sharpen a point I’m trying to make in an essay or article. It’s a beautiful way to make people pause, ponder, and put on their thinking cap when you really want a reader to pay attention.

    Plus, it just sounds good to the eye, doesn’t it? Of course, it does! So, let’s explore the concept a little more.

    What is alliteration?

    Many people think alliteration is simply when two or more words in a row start with the same letter. But like many things in life, it’s not that black and white. True alliteration focuses on the sound of the beginning of each word, rather than how its spelled.

    • “Certainly city cats” is an example that doesn’t work. Even though each of the first letters are “c”, they don’t all make the same sound when spoken out loud.
    • “Karl’s cats kill” on the other hand does work, even though there are two “k’s” and one “c.”

    The other general rule to remember for alliteration is the words don’t always have to be one after the other. They also can’t be too far apart, of course.

    • “Peter ate a pile of pickled peppers” is still alliteration even though there are several words in between.
    • “Peter ate a giant pile of spicy, somewhat pickled peppers” is mostly not alliteration (except the last part) because the important consonants are too far apart.

    So, if you ever have two or more words that start with the same consonant sound, and they’re close to each other when read aloud, you’re likely dealing with alliteration!

    As far as what languages use it, it’s not just English. Arabic, Finish, Icelandic, Irish, German, Hungarian, Mongolian, and even American Sign Language uses it, too!

    The word originally came from the Latin word littera, which means “letter of the alphabet”.

    What are the different types of alliteration?

    While we discussed above what most people refer to as alliteration, there are a few other types that scholars agree on (at least after they’ve fallen asleep from arguing so much).

    #1. Alliteration

    Just plain old alliteration, as discussed above, is when two or more consonants at the beginning of words are repeated in close junction with each other.

    Examples:

    • I ripped a ripe ribbon.
    • She speedily spoke.
    • Lucky lady.

    #2. Head rhyme or Initial rhyme

    This type is when the first two words of a sentence are using alliteration, which may or may not be followed by more words using the same structure.

    Examples:

    • Peter piped up, he wasn’t quiet.
    • Mary married her husband, of course.
    • Tacos try too hard to be sandwiches.

    #3. Consonance

    This type of alliteration isn’t used too often nowadays. It’s when a consonant sound anywhere inside a word is used, rather than just the beginning. In this case, it’s often the stressed sound when spoken aloud, rather than how it’s written. (Quick note, technically, alliteration is a type of consonance and not the reverse.)

    Examples:

    • I’m coming home to roam.
    • The queen is mine, and mine alone.

    #4. Symmetrical alliteration

    This last type is a specialized form and uses chiasmus or parallelism. This unique device is pretty cool in itself, but not often seen. It’s when a sentence or phrase has a pair of outside ending words both starting with the same sound, and as the sentence moves to the middle, each pair of outside-towards-inside words match as well. If you think of palindromes, you can kind of get the idea, but it’s probably easier to see it if we look at some examples.

    Examples:

    • Brown tigers tear bears.
    • Crusty golden grey cake.
    • Far away are fairies.

    Alliteration and tongue twisters

    One of the most recognizable forms of alliteration come in the form of tongue twisters! You’ve probably heard them if you’re learning another language, or if you grew up in a country where they’re commonly used. Many teachers use them to help[ language learners with their fluency, pronunciation, and articulation when reading and speaking.

    Examples:

    • Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. A peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked.
    • How much wood would a woodchuck chuck, if the woodchuck could chuck wood?
    • Green Greg generously gathered gooses for the gander.

    Alliteration in popular culture and brand names

    Marketers, entrepreneurs, and writers positively love using alliteration. Why? Because it’s so pleasing to read and easy to remember, of course!

    • Coca-Cola
    • Dunkin’ Donuts
    • Gold’s Gym
    • Krispy Kreme
    • PayPal
    • Range Rover
    • Pittsburgh Pirates
    • TikTok
    • Grey Goose
    • Peter Parker
    • Bruce Banner
    • Donald Duck
    • King Kong

    Summary

    If you’re writing an essay, a speech, or even poetry, take some time to consider adding a line of alliteration or two. Some people even make it a point of putting it in the title itself, as that’s what’s guaranteed to be the most read in anything you create. As for how to write a piece of alliteration, you essentially have two choices.

    1. Go find an example of a popular piece of alliteration that exists already, or
    2. Create your own!

    To create them, there are a few methods, but they all follow a similar path. Try to think of the intent of the phrase you’re making, then start with the first word. After that, a thesaurus can be your best friend for finding more options to follow. Just pop in the meaning of the word you want to say in a thesaurus, then poke around until you find a word starting with the same consonant sound as the first word.

    If it’s too tough to find one, replace your first word and start over.

    Easy peasy lemon squeezy.

    Or should I say, keep it simple, silly.